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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Kuwait

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 12/12/2007 14/05/2013
2 Algeria In force 30/09/2001 22/03/2004 Full text: fr
3 Armenia In force 25/06/2010 04/09/2013
4 Austria In force 16/11/1996 22/09/1998 Full text: de | en
5 Belarus In force 10/07/2001 14/06/2003 Full text: ru | ar | en
6 Benin In force 08/06/2008 03/05/2012
7 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 28/09/2000 08/12/2003 Full text: fr
8 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 13/06/2001 23/12/2002 Full text: en
9 Brunei Darussalam In force 13/04/2009 07/04/2011
10 Bulgaria In force 17/06/1997 16/09/1998 Full text: en
11 Cambodia Signed (not in force) 04/08/2008
12 Canada In force 26/09/2011 19/02/2014 Full text: fr | en
13 China In force 23/11/1985 24/12/1986 Full text: en
14 Croatia In force 08/03/1997 02/07/1998 Full text: en
15 Czech Republic In force 08/01/1996 21/01/1997 Full text: en
16 Denmark In force 01/06/2001 29/06/2002 Full text: en
17 Djibouti In force 19/07/2009 17/03/2014
18 Egypt Terminated 02/05/1966 09/08/1966
19 Egypt In force 17/04/2001 26/04/2002 Full text: ar
20 Ethiopia In force 14/09/1996 12/11/1998 Full text: en
21 Finland In force 10/03/1996 21/05/1997 Full text: en
22 France In force 27/09/1989 16/05/1991 Full text: fr
23 Gambia Signed (not in force) 01/04/2013
24 Georgia In force 13/10/2009 30/05/2013 Full text: en
25 Germany In force 30/03/1994 15/11/1997 Full text: en
26 Greece Signed (not in force) 12/06/2014
27 Guyana Signed (not in force) 17/01/2010
28 Hong Kong, China SAR In force 10/05/2010 14/09/2013
29 Hungary In force 08/11/1989 01/03/1994 Full text: en
30 India In force 27/11/2001 28/06/2003 Full text: en
31 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 13/02/2006 14/03/2011
32 Iraq Terminated 25/10/1964 07/06/1966 Full text: en
33 Iraq In force 06/12/2013 04/02/2015 Full text: ar
34 Italy In force 17/12/1987 21/05/1990 Full text: en | it
35 Jamaica Signed (not in force) 01/04/2013
36 Japan In force 22/03/2012 24/01/2014 Full text: en
37 Jordan In force 21/05/2001 19/03/2004 Full text: en | ar
38 Kazakhstan In force 31/08/1997 01/05/2000 Full text: en
39 Kenya In force 12/11/2013 22/04/2015 Full text: en
40 Korea, Republic of In force 15/07/2004 31/08/2007 Full text: en
41 Kyrgyzstan Signed (not in force) 13/12/2015 Full text: en | ru
42 Lao People's Democratic Republic In force 05/08/2008 08/04/2011
43 Latvia In force 05/10/2001 21/03/2004 Full text: en
44 Lebanon In force 21/01/2001 19/04/2002 Full text: ar
45 Lithuania In force 05/06/2001 15/01/2003 Full text: en
46 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 08/04/2008 02/11/2011
47 Malaysia In force 21/11/1987 19/12/1989 Full text: en
48 Malta In force 19/04/1995 25/06/1996
49 Mauritania Signed (not in force) 01/08/2006
50 Mauritius In force 18/04/2013 24/07/2014 Full text: en
51 Mexico In force 22/02/2013 28/04/2016 Full text: ar | es | en
52 Moldova, Republic of Terminated 04/02/1993
53 Moldova, Republic of In force 29/03/2002 06/04/2004
54 Mongolia In force 15/03/1998 01/05/2000 Full text: ar | mn
55 Morocco Terminated 03/04/1980
56 Morocco In force 16/02/1999 07/05/2001 Full text: ar
57 Netherlands In force 29/05/2001 31/05/2002 Full text: en
58 Nigeria Signed (not in force) 23/03/2011
59 Pakistan Terminated 17/03/1983 Full text: en
60 Pakistan In force 14/02/2011 10/11/2013 Full text: en
61 Philippines In force 12/03/2000 04/05/2002
62 Poland In force 05/03/1990 18/12/1993 Full text: en
63 Portugal In force 23/07/2007 28/05/2011 Full text: en | ar | pt
64 Romania In force 21/05/1991 26/07/1992 Full text: en
65 Russian Federation In force 21/11/1994 30/05/1996
66 Senegal Signed (not in force) 25/07/2009
67 Serbia In force 19/01/2004 01/04/2005 Full text: sr
68 Singapore In force 05/11/2009 15/04/2013 Full text: en
69 Slovakia In force 17/02/2009 05/09/2012 Full text: en
70 Slovenia In force 26/04/2002 28/07/2004
71 South Africa Signed (not in force) 26/09/2005
72 Spain In force 08/09/2005 08/03/2008 Full text: es | en
73 Sri Lanka Signed (not in force) 11/05/2009
74 Sudan Signed (not in force) 04/02/2001 Full text: ar
75 Swaziland Signed (not in force) 23/07/2009
76 Sweden In force 07/11/1999 10/05/2002 Full text: en | sv
77 Switzerland In force 31/10/1998 17/12/2000 Full text: fr | en
78 Syrian Arab Republic In force 16/08/2001 23/03/2004
79 Tajikistan In force 18/04/1995 12/06/1998
80 Tanzania, United Republic of Signed (not in force) 17/11/2013
81 Tunisia In force 14/09/1973 28/05/2006 Full text: ar
82 Turkey Terminated 27/10/1988 25/04/1992 Full text: en
83 Turkey In force 27/05/2010 08/05/2013 Full text: en
84 Ukraine In force 12/01/2002 11/06/2013
85 United Arab Emirates Signed (not in force) 12/02/1966
86 United Kingdom Signed (not in force) 08/10/2009
87 Uzbekistan In force 19/01/2004 06/03/2006
88 Viet Nam In force 23/05/2007 16/03/2011
89 Yemen Signed (not in force) 20/02/2001
90 Zimbabwe In force 07/03/2000 22/11/2008