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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

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No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Armenia In force 07/10/2005 21/04/2007 Full text: en
2 Austria In force 17/11/1994 01/05/1996 Full text: de
3 Azerbaijan In force 03/10/2005 10/05/2006 Full text: en
4 Belarus In force 03/03/1998 21/12/1998 Full text: ru
5 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 27/03/1996 04/04/1999 Full text: fr
6 Bulgaria In force 04/12/2003 23/07/2004 Full text: en
7 Canada In force 05/05/2009 24/11/2011 Full text: en | fr
8 Canada Terminated 26/04/1995 27/07/1995 Full text: en | fr
9 China In force 15/04/2004 01/02/2006 Full text: en
10 Croatia In force 04/04/2002 25/05/2005 Full text: en
11 Czech Republic In force 25/10/1994 01/08/1995 Full text: en
12 Denmark In force 30/03/1992 28/11/1994 Full text: en
13 Egypt In force 24/04/1997 03/06/1998 Full text: en | ar
14 Estonia In force 07/02/1996 23/05/1996
15 Finland In force 05/03/1992 07/12/1992 Full text: en
16 France In force 15/05/1992 01/10/1994 Full text: fr
17 Georgia In force 05/10/2005 05/03/2006 Full text: en
18 Germany In force 20/04/1993 09/06/1996 Full text: de
19 Greece In force 20/07/1995 09/02/1998 Full text: en
20 Hungary In force 10/06/1999 25/08/2000 Full text: en
21 Iceland In force 11/06/1998 01/05/1999
22 India In force 18/02/2010 27/11/2010 Full text: en
23 Israel In force 27/02/1994 09/05/1995 Full text: en
24 Italy Terminated 21/05/1997 02/03/1999
25 Kazakhstan In force 08/10/2004 21/04/2006 Full text: ru
26 Korea, Republic of In force 23/10/1996 26/01/1997 Full text: en
27 Kuwait In force 05/10/2001 21/03/2004 Full text: en
28 Kyrgyzstan In force 22/05/2008 11/02/2009 Full text: en
29 Lithuania In force 07/02/1996 23/07/1996
30 Moldova, Republic of In force 22/09/1999 14/04/2000
31 Netherlands In force 14/03/1994 01/04/1995 Full text: en
32 Norway In force 16/06/1992 01/12/1992 Full text: en
33 Poland In force 26/04/1993 19/07/1993 Full text: en
34 Portugal In force 27/09/1995 17/07/1997 Full text: en | pt
35 Romania In force 27/11/2001 22/08/2002 Full text: en
36 Singapore In force 07/07/1998 18/03/1999 Full text: en
37 Slovakia In force 09/04/1998 30/10/1998 Full text: sk
38 Spain In force 26/10/1995 14/03/1997 Full text: es
39 Sweden In force 10/03/1992 06/11/1992 Full text: en
40 Switzerland In force 22/12/1992 16/04/1993 Full text: en | fr
41 Turkey In force 18/02/1997 03/03/1999 Full text: en
42 Ukraine In force 24/07/1997 30/12/1997
43 United Kingdom In force 24/01/1994 16/02/1995 Full text: en
44 United States of America In force 13/01/1995 26/12/1996 Full text: en
45 Uzbekistan In force 23/05/1996 29/01/1997
46 Viet Nam In force 06/11/1995 20/02/1996 Full text: en