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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Malaysia

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 24/01/1994 29/03/1994 Full text: en
2 Algeria In force 27/01/2000 09/02/2002 Full text: fr
3 Argentina In force 06/09/1994 20/03/1996 Full text: es
4 Austria In force 12/04/1985 01/01/1987 Full text: en | de
5 Bahrain In force 15/06/1999 21/01/2011
6 Bangladesh In force 12/10/1994 20/08/1996 Full text: en
7 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 22/11/1979 08/02/1982
8 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 16/12/1994 27/05/1995 Full text: en
9 Botswana Signed (not in force) 31/07/1997
10 Burkina Faso In force 23/04/1998 18/08/2003 Full text: en
11 Cambodia In force 17/08/1994 09/05/1997 Full text: en
12 Chile In force 11/11/1992 04/08/1995 Full text: es
13 China In force 21/11/1988 31/03/1990 Full text: en
14 Croatia In force 16/12/1994 19/07/1996 Full text: en
15 Cuba In force 26/09/1997 27/10/1999
16 Czech Republic In force 09/09/1996 03/12/1998 Full text: en
17 Denmark In force 06/01/1992 18/09/1992 Full text: en
18 Djibouti Signed (not in force) 03/08/1998
19 Egypt In force 14/04/1997 03/02/2000 Full text: en
20 Ethiopia In force 22/10/1998 04/06/1999 Full text: en
21 Finland In force 15/04/1985 03/01/1988 Full text: en
22 France In force 24/04/1975 01/08/1976 Full text: fr
23 Germany In force 22/12/1960 06/07/1963 Full text: en
24 Ghana In force 08/11/1996 18/04/1997 Full text: en
25 Guinea In force 07/11/1996 24/02/1997
26 Hungary In force 19/02/1993 08/07/1995 Full text: en
27 India Terminated 03/08/1995 12/04/1997 Full text: en
28 Indonesia Terminated 22/01/1994 27/10/1999 Full text: en
29 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 22/07/2002 05/08/2006
30 Italy In force 04/01/1988 25/10/1990 Full text: it
31 Jordan In force 02/10/1994 03/03/1995 Full text: en | ar
32 Kazakhstan In force 27/05/1996 03/08/1997 Full text: en
33 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of In force 04/02/1998 17/10/1998
34 Korea, Republic of In force 11/04/1988 31/03/1989 Full text: en
35 Kuwait In force 21/11/1987 19/12/1989
36 Kyrgyzstan Signed (not in force) 20/07/1995 Full text: en
37 Lao People's Democratic Republic Signed (not in force) 08/12/1992
38 Lebanon In force 26/02/1998 20/01/2002 Full text: en
39 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 11/11/1997 17/03/1999 Full text: en
40 Malawi Signed (not in force) 05/09/1996
41 Mongolia In force 27/07/1995 14/01/1996 Full text: en
42 Morocco In force 16/04/2002 23/04/2009 Full text: ar
43 Namibia In force 12/08/1994 02/11/1996
44 Netherlands In force 15/06/1971 13/09/1972 Full text: en
45 Norway Terminated 06/11/1984 07/01/1986 Full text: en
46 Pakistan Terminated 17/07/1995 30/11/1995
47 Papua New Guinea Signed (not in force) 27/10/1992
48 Peru In force 13/10/1995 25/12/1995 Full text: es
49 Poland In force 21/04/1993 23/03/1994
50 Romania Terminated 26/11/1982 Full text: en
51 Romania In force 25/06/1996 08/05/1997 Full text: en
52 San Marino Signed (not in force) 27/09/2012
53 Saudi Arabia In force 25/10/2000 14/08/2001 Full text: en
54 Senegal Signed (not in force) 11/02/1999
55 Slovakia In force 12/07/2007 05/02/2012 Full text: en
56 Spain In force 04/04/1995 16/02/1996 Full text: es
57 Sri Lanka In force 16/04/1982 31/10/1995
58 Sudan Signed (not in force) 02/08/1998 Full text: en
59 Sweden In force 03/03/1979 06/07/1979 Full text: en
60 Switzerland In force 01/03/1978 09/06/1978 Full text: fr | en
61 Syrian Arab Republic In force 07/01/2009 03/05/2009
62 Taiwan Province of China In force 18/02/1993 18/03/1993
63 Turkey In force 25/02/1998 09/09/2000 Full text: en
64 Turkmenistan Signed (not in force) 30/05/1994
65 United Arab Emirates In force 11/10/1991 22/05/1992 Full text: en
66 United Kingdom In force 21/05/1981 21/10/1988 Full text: en
67 Uruguay In force 09/08/1995 13/04/2002 Full text: es
68 Uzbekistan In force 06/09/1997 20/01/2000
69 Viet Nam In force 21/01/1992 09/10/1992 Full text: en
70 Yemen Signed (not in force) 11/02/1998
71 Zimbabwe Signed (not in force) 28/04/1994