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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Azerbaijan

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania Signed (not in force) 09/02/2012 Full text: en
2 Austria In force 04/07/2000 28/05/2001 Full text: de | en
3 Belarus Signed (not in force) 03/06/2010 Full text: ru
4 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 18/05/2004 27/05/2009 Full text: en | fr
5 Bulgaria Signed (not in force) 07/10/2004
6 China In force 08/03/1994 01/04/1995 Full text: en
7 Croatia In force 02/10/2007 30/05/2008 Full text: en
8 Czech Republic In force 17/05/2011 09/02/2012 Full text: en
9 Egypt Signed (not in force) 24/10/2002
10 Estonia Signed (not in force) 07/04/2010 Full text: en
11 Finland In force 26/02/2003 10/12/2004 Full text: en
12 France In force 01/09/1998 24/08/2000 Full text: fr
13 Georgia In force 08/03/1996 10/07/1996
14 Germany In force 22/12/1995 29/07/1998 Full text: de
15 Greece In force 21/06/2004 03/09/2006 Full text: en
16 Hungary In force 18/05/2007 26/02/2008 Full text: en
17 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 28/10/1996 20/06/2002
18 Israel In force 20/02/2007 16/01/2009 Full text: en
19 Italy Terminated 25/09/1997 04/02/2000 Full text: en | it
20 Jordan In force 05/05/2008 25/12/2008 Full text: ar
21 Kazakhstan In force 16/09/1996 30/04/1998 Full text: az | en | fr | kk | ru
22 Korea, Republic of In force 23/04/2007 25/01/2008 Full text: en
23 Kyrgyzstan In force 28/08/1997 28/08/1997 Full text: ru
24 Latvia In force 03/10/2005 10/05/2006 Full text: en
25 Lebanon Signed (not in force) 11/02/1998 Full text: en
26 Lithuania In force 08/06/2006 01/07/2007 Full text: az | en | lt
27 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Signed (not in force) 19/04/2013
28 Moldova, Republic of In force 27/11/1997 28/01/1999
29 Montenegro In force 16/09/2011 02/11/2012 Full text: en
30 Norway Signed (not in force) 25/09/1996
31 Pakistan Signed (not in force) 09/10/1995 Full text: en
32 Poland In force 26/08/1997 10/02/1999
33 Qatar Signed (not in force) 28/08/2007
34 Romania In force 29/10/2002 29/01/2004 Full text: en | ro
35 Russian Federation In force 29/09/2014 16/11/2015 Full text: ru
36 San Marino Signed (not in force) 25/09/2015 Full text: en | it
37 Saudi Arabia Signed (not in force) 09/03/2005
38 Serbia In force 08/06/2011 14/12/2011 Full text: en | sr
39 Spain In force 26/10/1990 28/11/1991 Full text: es
40 Switzerland In force 23/02/2006 25/06/2007 Full text: fr | en
41 Syrian Arab Republic In force 08/07/2009 04/01/2010 Full text: en
42 Tajikistan In force 17/03/2007 26/02/2008 Full text: ru
43 Turkey Terminated 09/02/1994 08/09/1997 Full text: tr
44 Turkey In force 25/10/2011 02/05/2013 Full text: en
45 Ukraine In force 21/03/1997 09/12/1997
46 United Arab Emirates In force 01/11/2006 24/08/2007 Full text: en | ar
47 United Kingdom In force 04/01/1996 11/12/1996 Full text: en
48 United States of America In force 01/08/1997 02/08/2001 Full text: en
49 Uzbekistan In force 27/05/1996 02/11/1996