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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Morocco

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Argentina In force 13/06/1996 19/02/2000 Full text: es
2 Austria In force 02/11/1992 01/07/1995 Full text: fr | de
3 Bahrain In force 07/04/2000 09/04/2001 Full text: ar
4 Benin Signed (not in force) 15/06/2004 Full text: fr
5 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) Terminated 28/04/1965 18/10/1967 Full text: en | fr
6 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 13/04/1999 29/05/2002 Full text: fr
7 Bulgaria In force 22/05/1996 19/02/2000 Full text: fr
8 Burkina Faso In force 08/02/2007 05/03/2016 Full text: fr
9 Cameroon Signed (not in force) 24/01/2007 Full text: fr
10 Central African Republic Signed (not in force) 26/09/2006 Full text: fr
11 Chad Signed (not in force) 04/12/1997 Full text: fr
12 China In force 27/03/1995 27/11/1999 Full text: fr
13 Croatia Signed (not in force) 29/09/2004 Full text: en
14 Czech Republic In force 11/06/2001 30/01/2003 Full text: fr
15 Denmark In force 22/05/2003 18/09/2013 Full text: en
16 Dominican Republic In force 23/05/2002 04/01/2007 Full text: en
17 Egypt Terminated 03/06/1976 07/09/1978
18 Egypt In force 14/05/1997 01/07/1998 Full text: ar
19 El Salvador In force 21/04/1999 11/04/2002 Full text: en
20 Equatorial Guinea Signed (not in force) 05/07/2005 Full text: fr
21 Estonia In force 25/09/2009 04/11/2011 Full text: en | ar | fr | et
22 Ethiopia Signed (not in force) 01/11/2016
23 Finland In force 01/10/2001 06/04/2003 Full text: en
24 France Terminated 15/07/1975 13/12/1976 Full text: fr
25 France In force 13/01/1996 30/05/1999 Full text: fr
26 Gabon In force 21/06/2004 24/07/2009 Full text: fr
27 Gabon Terminated 13/01/1979 07/11/1979
28 Gambia In force 20/02/2006 12/10/2011 Full text: en
29 Germany Terminated 31/08/1961 21/01/1968 Full text: ar | de | fr
30 Germany In force 06/08/2001 12/04/2008 Full text: fr | de
31 Greece In force 16/02/1994 28/06/2000 Full text: fr
32 Guinea Signed (not in force) 02/05/2002 Full text: fr
33 Guinea-Bissau Signed (not in force) 28/05/2015 Full text: fr
34 Hungary In force 12/12/1991 03/02/2000 Full text: fr
35 India In force 13/02/1999 22/02/2001 Full text: en
36 Indonesia In force 14/03/1997 21/03/2002 Full text: en
37 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 21/01/2001 31/03/2003 Full text: ar
38 Italy In force 18/07/1990 26/04/2000 Full text: fr | it
39 Jordan In force 16/06/1998 07/02/2000 Full text: en | ar
40 Korea, Republic of In force 27/01/1999 08/05/2001 Full text: en
41 Kuwait Terminated 03/04/1980
42 Kuwait In force 16/02/1999 07/05/2001 Full text: ar
43 Lebanon In force 03/07/1997 04/03/2000 Full text: ar
44 Libya In force 02/11/2000 20/10/2001 Full text: ar
45 Libya Terminated 25/01/1984 18/09/1993 Full text: ar
46 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 11/05/2010 15/10/2012 Full text: en | ar
47 Malaysia In force 16/04/2002 23/04/2009 Full text: ar
48 Mali In force 21/02/2014 02/03/2016 Full text: fr
49 Mauritania In force 13/06/2000 20/10/2003 Full text: ar
50 Netherlands In force 23/12/1971 27/07/1978 Full text: fr
51 Nigeria Signed (not in force) 03/12/2016 Full text: en
52 Oman In force 08/05/2001 30/03/2003 Full text: ar
53 Pakistan Signed (not in force) 16/04/2001 Full text: en
54 Poland In force 24/10/1994 09/07/1999 Full text: fr
55 Portugal In force 18/10/1988 22/03/1995 Full text: pt
56 Portugal Signed (not in force) 17/04/2007 Full text: fr
57 Qatar In force 20/02/1999 21/05/2001 Full text: ar
58 Romania In force 28/01/1994 03/02/2000 Full text: fr
59 Russian Federation Signed (not in force) 15/03/2016 Full text: ru
60 Rwanda Signed (not in force) 19/10/2016 Full text: en | ar
61 Senegal Signed (not in force) 18/02/2001
62 Senegal Signed (not in force) 15/11/2006 Full text: fr
63 Serbia Signed (not in force) 06/06/2013 Full text: en
64 Slovakia In force 14/06/2007 11/05/2014 Full text: en
65 Spain Terminated 27/09/1989 15/01/1992 Full text: es
66 Spain In force 11/12/1997 13/04/2005 Full text: en | fr | es
67 Sudan In force 23/02/1999 04/07/2002 Full text: ar
68 Sweden In force 26/09/1990 16/06/2008 Full text: fr
69 Switzerland In force 17/12/1985 12/04/1991 Full text: fr
70 Syrian Arab Republic In force 23/10/2001 29/03/2003 Full text: ar
71 Tunisia In force 28/01/1994 01/04/1999 Full text: ar
72 Turkey In force 08/04/1997 30/05/2004 Full text: en
73 Ukraine In force 24/12/2001 25/04/2009 Full text: fr
74 United Arab Emirates In force 09/02/1999 01/04/2002 Full text: ar
75 United Arab Emirates Terminated 16/06/1982 Full text: ar
76 United Kingdom In force 30/10/1990 14/02/2002 Full text: en
77 United States of America In force 22/07/1985 29/05/1991 Full text: en
78 Viet Nam Signed (not in force) 15/06/2012 Full text: en
79 Yemen Signed (not in force) 24/02/2001 Full text: ar
80 Yemen Signed (not in force) 24/02/1997 Full text: ar