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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 199

Netherlands

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 15/04/1994 01/09/1995 Full text: en
2 Algeria In force 20/03/2007 01/08/2008 Full text: fr
3 Argentina In force 20/10/1992 01/10/1994 Full text: en
4 Armenia In force 10/06/2005 01/08/2006 Full text: en
5 Bahrain In force 05/02/2007 01/12/2009 Full text: en
6 Bangladesh In force 01/11/1994 01/06/1996 Full text: en
7 Belarus In force 11/04/1995 01/08/1996 Full text: en
8 Belize In force 20/09/2002 01/10/2004 Full text: en
9 Benin In force 13/12/2001 15/12/2007 Full text: fr
10 Bolivia, Plurinational State of Terminated 10/03/1992 01/11/1994 Full text: en
11 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 13/05/1998 01/01/2002 Full text: en
12 Brazil Signed (not in force) 25/11/1998 Full text: en
13 Bulgaria In force 06/10/1999 01/03/2001 Full text: en
14 Bulgaria Terminated 08/03/1988 24/05/1990 Full text: nl | en
15 Burkina Faso In force 10/11/2000 01/01/2004 Full text: fr
16 Burundi In force 24/05/2007 01/08/2009 Full text: fr
17 Cambodia In force 23/06/2003 01/03/2006 Full text: en
18 Cameroon In force 06/07/1965 07/05/1966 Full text: fr
19 Cape Verde In force 11/11/1991 25/11/1992 Full text: fr
20 Chile Signed (not in force) 30/11/1998 Full text: en
21 China In force 26/11/2001 01/08/2004 Full text: en
22 China Terminated 17/06/1985 01/02/1987 Full text: en
23 Costa Rica In force 21/05/1999 01/07/2001 Full text: en | es
24 Côte d'Ivoire In force 26/04/1965 08/09/1966 Full text: fr
25 Croatia In force 28/04/1998 01/06/1999 Full text: en
26 Cuba In force 02/11/1999 01/11/2001 Full text: en
27 Czech Republic In force 29/04/1991 01/10/1992 Full text: en
28 Dominican Republic In force 03/03/2006 01/10/2007 Full text: en
29 Ecuador In force 27/06/1999 01/07/2001 Full text: en
30 Egypt In force 17/01/1996 01/03/1998 Full text: en
31 Egypt Terminated 30/10/1976 01/01/1978 Full text: en | nl
32 El Salvador In force 12/10/1999 01/03/2001 Full text: en
33 Eritrea Signed (not in force) 02/12/2003 Full text: en
34 Estonia In force 27/10/1992 01/09/1993 Full text: en
35 Ethiopia In force 16/05/2003 01/07/2005 Full text: en
36 Gambia In force 25/09/2002 01/04/2007 Full text: en
37 Georgia In force 03/02/1998 01/04/1999 Full text: en
38 Ghana In force 31/03/1989 01/07/1991 Full text: en
39 Guatemala In force 18/05/2001 01/09/2002 Full text: en
40 Honduras In force 15/01/2001 01/09/2002 Full text: en
41 Hong Kong, China SAR In force 19/11/1992 01/09/1993 Full text: en
42 Hungary In force 02/09/1987 01/06/1988 Full text: en
43 India In force 06/11/1995 01/12/1996 Full text: en
44 Indonesia Terminated 07/07/1968 17/07/1971 Full text: en | fr
45 Indonesia Terminated 06/04/1994 01/07/1995 Full text: en
46 Jamaica In force 18/04/1991 01/08/1992 Full text: en
47 Jordan In force 17/11/1997 01/08/1998 Full text: en | ar
48 Kazakhstan In force 27/11/2002 01/08/2007 Full text: en
49 Kenya In force 11/09/1970 11/06/1979 Full text: en
50 Korea, Republic of Terminated 16/10/1974 01/06/1975 Full text: en
51 Korea, Republic of In force 12/07/2003 01/03/2005 Full text: en
52 Kuwait In force 29/05/2001 31/05/2002 Full text: en
53 Lao People's Democratic Republic In force 16/05/2003 01/05/2005 Full text: en
54 Latvia In force 14/03/1994 01/04/1995 Full text: en
55 Lebanon In force 02/05/2002 01/03/2004 Full text: en
56 Lithuania In force 26/01/1994 01/04/1995 Full text: nl
57 Macao, China SAR In force 22/05/2008 01/05/2009 Full text: en
58 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 07/07/1998 01/06/1999 Full text: en
59 Malawi In force 11/12/2003 01/11/2007 Full text: en
60 Malaysia In force 15/06/1971 13/09/1972 Full text: en
61 Mali In force 13/07/2003 01/03/2005 Full text: fr
62 Malta In force 10/09/1984 01/07/1985 Full text: en | fr
63 Mexico In force 13/05/1998 01/10/1999 Full text: en
64 Moldova, Republic of In force 26/09/1995 01/05/1997 Full text: en
65 Mongolia In force 09/03/1995 01/06/1996 Full text: en
66 Montenegro In force 29/01/2002 01/03/2004 Full text: en
67 Morocco In force 23/12/1971 27/07/1978 Full text: fr
68 Mozambique In force 18/12/2001 01/09/2004 Full text: en
69 Namibia In force 26/11/2002 01/10/2004 Full text: en
70 Nicaragua In force 28/08/2000 01/01/2003 Full text: en
71 Nigeria In force 02/11/1992 01/02/1994 Full text: en
72 Oman Signed (not in force) 17/01/2009 Full text: en
73 Oman In force 19/09/1987 01/02/1989 Full text: en
74 Pakistan In force 04/10/1988 01/10/1989 Full text: en
75 Panama In force 28/08/2000 01/09/2001 Full text: en
76 Paraguay In force 29/10/1992 01/08/1994 Full text: en
77 Peru In force 27/12/1994 01/02/1996 Full text: en
78 Philippines In force 27/02/1985 01/10/1987 Full text: en
79 Poland In force 07/09/1992 01/02/1994 Full text: en
80 Romania In force 19/04/1994 01/02/1995 Full text: en
81 Russian Federation In force 05/10/1989 20/07/1991 Full text: en | ru
82 Senegal In force 03/08/1979 05/05/1981 Full text: fr
83 Serbia In force 29/01/2002 01/03/2004 Full text: en
84 Singapore In force 16/05/1972 07/09/1973 Full text: en
85 Slovakia In force 29/04/1991 01/10/1992 Full text: en
86 Slovenia In force 24/09/1996 01/08/1998 Full text: en
87 South Africa Terminated 09/05/1995 01/05/1999 Full text: en
88 Sri Lanka In force 26/04/1984 01/05/1985 Full text: en
89 Sudan In force 22/08/1970 27/03/1972 Full text: nl | en
90 Suriname In force 31/03/2005 01/09/2006 Full text: en
91 Tajikistan In force 24/07/2002 01/04/2004 Full text: en
92 Tanzania, United Republic of In force 31/07/2001 01/04/2004 Full text: en
93 Thailand In force 06/06/1972 03/03/1973 Full text: en
94 Tunisia In force 11/05/1998 01/08/1999 Full text: en
95 Tunisia Terminated 23/05/1963 19/12/1964 Full text: en | fr | nl
96 Turkey In force 27/03/1986 01/11/1989 Full text: en
97 Uganda In force 30/05/2000 01/01/2003 Full text: en
98 Uganda Terminated 24/04/1970 Full text: en | nl
99 Ukraine In force 14/07/1994 01/06/1997 Full text: en
100 United Arab Emirates Signed (not in force) 26/11/2013 Full text: en
101 Uruguay In force 22/09/1988 01/08/1991 Full text: nl
102 Uzbekistan In force 14/03/1996 01/07/1997 Full text: en
103 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Terminated 22/10/1991 01/11/1993 Full text: en | es
104 Viet Nam In force 10/03/1994 01/02/1995 Full text: en
105 Yemen In force 18/03/1985 01/09/1986 Full text: en
106 Zambia In force 30/04/2003 01/03/2014 Full text: en
107 Zimbabwe In force 11/12/1996 01/05/1998 Full text: en