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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Pakistan

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Australia In force 07/02/1998 14/10/1998 Full text: en
2 Azerbaijan Signed (not in force) 09/10/1995 Full text: en
3 Bahrain In force 18/03/2014 07/10/2015 Full text: en
4 Bangladesh Signed (not in force) 24/10/1995
5 Belarus Signed (not in force) 22/01/1997 Full text: en
6 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 23/04/1998 07/08/2015 Full text: en
7 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 04/09/2001 14/05/2010 Full text: en
8 Bulgaria Signed (not in force) 12/02/2002
9 Cambodia Signed (not in force) 27/04/2004
10 China In force 12/02/1989 30/09/1990 Full text: en
11 Czech Republic Signed (not in force) 07/05/1999 Full text: en
12 Denmark In force 18/07/1996 25/09/1996 Full text: en
13 Egypt Signed (not in force) 16/04/2000 Full text: en
14 France In force 01/06/1983 14/12/1984 Full text: fr
15 Germany In force 25/11/1959 28/04/1962 Full text: en
16 Germany Signed (not in force) 01/12/2009 Full text: en
17 Indonesia Terminated 08/03/1996 03/12/1996 Full text: en
18 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 08/11/1995 27/06/1998 Full text: en
19 Italy In force 19/07/1997 22/06/2001 Full text: en
20 Japan In force 10/03/1998 29/05/2002 Full text: en
21 Kazakhstan In force 08/12/2003 07/12/2009 Full text: en
22 Korea, Republic of In force 25/05/1988 15/04/1990 Full text: en
23 Kuwait Terminated 17/03/1983 Full text: en
24 Kuwait In force 14/02/2011 10/11/2013 Full text: en
25 Kyrgyzstan Signed (not in force) 26/08/1995 Full text: en
26 Lao People's Democratic Republic In force 23/04/2004 19/03/2007 Full text: en
27 Lebanon In force 09/01/2001 28/03/2003 Full text: en
28 Malaysia Terminated 17/07/1995 30/11/1995
29 Mauritius In force 03/04/1997 03/04/1997 Full text: en
30 Morocco Signed (not in force) 16/04/2001 Full text: en
31 Netherlands In force 04/10/1988 01/10/1989 Full text: en
32 Oman In force 09/11/1997 14/05/1998 Full text: en | ar
33 Philippines Signed (not in force) 23/04/1999 Full text: en
34 Portugal In force 17/04/1995 14/12/1996 Full text: en
35 Qatar Signed (not in force) 06/04/1999
36 Romania In force 10/07/1995 08/08/1996 Full text: en
37 Romania Terminated 21/01/1978 31/10/1978 Full text: en
38 Singapore In force 08/03/1995 04/05/1995 Full text: en
39 Spain In force 15/09/1994 26/04/1996 Full text: es
40 Sri Lanka In force 20/12/1997 05/01/2000 Full text: en
41 Sweden In force 12/03/1981 14/06/1981 Full text: en
42 Switzerland In force 11/07/1995 06/05/1996 Full text: en | fr
43 Syrian Arab Republic In force 25/04/1996 04/11/1997 Full text: en
44 Tajikistan Terminated 31/03/1994
45 Tajikistan In force 13/05/2004 29/07/2009 Full text: en
46 Tunisia Signed (not in force) 18/04/1996 Full text: en
47 Turkey In force 16/03/1995 03/09/1997 Full text: en
48 Turkey Signed (not in force) 22/05/2012 Full text: en
49 Turkmenistan Signed (not in force) 26/10/1994 Full text: en
50 United Arab Emirates In force 05/11/1995 02/12/1997 Full text: en
51 United Kingdom In force 30/11/1994 30/11/1994 Full text: en
52 Uzbekistan In force 13/08/1992 15/02/2006 Full text: en
53 Yemen Signed (not in force) 11/05/1999 Full text: en