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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Portugal

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 11/09/1998 10/06/2007 Full text: pt
2 Algeria Terminated 15/09/1994
3 Algeria In force 15/09/2004 08/09/2005 Full text: fr
4 Angola Signed (not in force) 24/10/1997 Full text: pt
5 Angola Signed (not in force) 22/02/2008 Full text: pt
6 Argentina In force 06/10/1994 03/05/1996 Full text: pt
7 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 13/03/2002 03/02/2009 Full text: en | pt
8 Brazil Signed (not in force) 09/02/1994 Full text: pt
9 Bulgaria In force 27/05/1993 20/11/2000 Full text: en
10 Cabo Verde In force 26/10/1990 04/10/1991 Full text: pt
11 Chile In force 28/04/1995 24/02/1998 Full text: es
12 China Terminated 03/02/1992 01/12/1992 Full text: en
13 China In force 09/12/2005 26/07/2008 Full text: pt | en
14 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Signed (not in force) 03/03/2011
15 Congo Signed (not in force) 04/06/2010 Full text: fr
16 Croatia In force 09/05/1995 27/11/1997 Full text: en
17 Cuba In force 08/07/1998 18/06/1999 Full text: pt
18 Czech Republic In force 12/11/1993 03/08/1994 Full text: en
19 Egypt In force 29/04/1999 23/12/2000 Full text: en
20 Equatorial Guinea Signed (not in force) 16/01/2009
21 Gabon Signed (not in force) 17/12/2001 Full text: pt
22 Germany In force 16/09/1980 23/04/1982 Full text: de
23 Guinea-Bissau In force 24/06/1991 08/04/1996 Full text: en | pt
24 Hungary In force 28/02/1992 08/10/1997 Full text: pt
25 India In force 28/06/2000 19/07/2002 Full text: en | pt
26 Jordan In force 17/03/2009 06/01/2015 Full text: pt | en
27 Korea, Republic of In force 03/05/1995 11/08/1996 Full text: en
28 Kuwait In force 23/07/2007 28/05/2011 Full text: en | ar | pt
29 Latvia In force 27/09/1995 17/07/1997 Full text: en | pt
30 Libya In force 14/06/2003 19/06/2005 Full text: pt
31 Lithuania In force 27/05/1998 14/08/2003 Full text: pt
32 Macao, China SAR In force 17/05/2000 02/05/2002 Full text: pt
33 Mauritius In force 12/12/1997 03/01/1999 Full text: en
34 Mexico In force 11/11/1999 04/09/2000 Full text: en | es
35 Morocco In force 18/10/1988 22/03/1995 Full text: pt
36 Morocco Signed (not in force) 17/04/2007 Full text: fr
37 Mozambique In force 28/05/1996 31/10/1998 Full text: pt
38 Pakistan In force 17/04/1995 14/12/1996 Full text: en
39 Paraguay In force 24/11/1999 04/11/2001 Full text: es
40 Peru In force 22/11/1994 18/10/1995 Full text: es
41 Philippines In force 08/11/2002 14/08/2003 Full text: pt
42 Poland In force 11/03/1993 09/11/1993 Full text: pt
43 Qatar In force 21/04/2009 19/07/2010 Full text: en | ar | pt
44 Romania In force 17/11/1993 17/11/1994 Full text: en
45 Russian Federation Signed (not in force) 21/07/1994 Full text: pt | ru
46 Sao Tome and Principe Signed (not in force) 12/05/1995 Full text: pt
47 Senegal Signed (not in force) 25/01/2011
48 Serbia In force 19/09/2009 24/07/2010 Full text: en
49 Slovakia In force 10/07/1995 15/05/1999 Full text: pt
50 Slovenia In force 14/05/1997 04/05/2000 Full text: en
51 Timor-Leste In force 20/05/2002 07/04/2004 Full text: pt
52 Tunisia Terminated 11/03/1992 06/12/1994
53 Tunisia In force 28/02/2002 10/11/2006 Full text: fr
54 Turkey In force 19/02/2001 19/01/2004 Full text: en
55 Ukraine In force 25/10/2000 18/07/2003 Full text: pt
56 United Arab Emirates In force 19/11/2011 04/07/2012 Full text: en | ar | pt
57 Uruguay In force 25/07/1997 03/11/1999 Full text: es | pt
58 Uzbekistan In force 11/09/2001 14/03/2010 Full text: en | pt
59 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of In force 17/06/1994 07/10/1995 Full text: pt
60 Zimbabwe Signed (not in force) 05/05/1994 Full text: pt