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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Romania

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No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 11/05/1995 02/09/1995 Full text: en
2 Algeria In force 28/06/1994 30/12/1995 Full text: fr
3 Argentina In force 29/07/1993 01/05/1995 Full text: en
4 Armenia In force 20/09/1994 24/12/1995 Full text: en
5 Australia In force 21/06/1993 22/04/1994 Full text: en
6 Austria In force 15/05/1996 01/07/1997 Full text: de
7 Azerbaijan In force 29/10/2002 29/01/2004 Full text: en | ro
8 Bangladesh In force 13/03/1987 31/10/1987 Full text: en
9 Belarus In force 31/05/1995 08/01/1997 Full text: ru
10 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 04/03/1996 09/03/2001 Full text: fr
11 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) Terminated 08/05/1978 01/05/1980 Full text: nl | en | fr
12 Bolivia, Plurinational State of In force 09/10/1995 16/03/1997 Full text: ro
13 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 20/02/2001 03/12/2001 Full text: en
14 Bulgaria In force 01/06/1994 23/05/1995 Full text: en
15 Cameroon In force 30/08/1980 24/09/1981 Full text: fr
16 Canada Terminated 17/04/1996 11/02/1997 Full text: en | fr | ro
17 Canada In force 08/05/2009 23/11/2011 Full text: en
18 Chile In force 04/07/1995 27/07/1997 Full text: en | es
19 China In force 12/07/1994 01/09/1995 Full text: en
20 Croatia In force 08/06/1994 30/04/1998 Full text: en
21 Cuba In force 27/01/1996 22/05/1997 Full text: en
22 Cyprus In force 26/07/1991 10/07/1993 Full text: en
23 Czech Republic In force 08/11/1993 28/07/1994 Full text: en
24 Denmark Terminated 14/06/1994 24/08/1995 Full text: en
25 Ecuador Terminated 21/03/1996 18/07/1997 Full text: es
26 Egypt In force 24/11/1994 03/04/1997 Full text: en | ro
27 Egypt Terminated 10/05/1976 02/01/1977 Full text: en
28 Finland In force 26/03/1992 06/01/1993 Full text: en
29 France In force 21/03/1995 20/06/1996 Full text: fr
30 France Terminated 16/12/1976 01/08/1978 Full text: fr
31 Gabon In force 11/04/1979 18/09/1982
32 Georgia In force 11/12/1997 12/06/1998 Full text: en
33 Germany Terminated 12/10/1979 10/01/1981 Full text: de | ro | en
34 Germany In force 25/06/1996 12/12/1998 Full text: de
35 Ghana Signed (not in force) 14/09/1989 Full text: en
36 Greece In force 23/05/1997 11/06/1998
37 Greece Terminated 16/09/1991 21/10/1992 Full text: en
38 Hungary In force 16/09/1993 06/05/1996 Full text: en
39 India In force 17/11/1997 09/12/1999 Full text: en
40 Indonesia Terminated 27/06/1997 21/08/1999 Full text: en
41 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 26/01/2003 12/01/2005
42 Israel In force 03/08/1998 27/07/2003 Full text: en
43 Italy Terminated 06/12/1990 14/03/1995 Full text: it
44 Jordan In force 02/07/1992 16/03/1999 Full text: en | ar
45 Kazakhstan Terminated 25/04/1996 05/04/1997
46 Kazakhstan In force 02/03/2010 17/07/2013 Full text: en | ro
47 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of In force 23/01/1998 31/03/2001
48 Korea, Republic of Terminated 07/08/1990 30/12/1994 Full text: en | ko
49 Korea, Republic of In force 06/09/2006 11/01/2008
50 Kuwait In force 21/05/1991 26/07/1992 Full text: en
51 Latvia In force 27/11/2001 22/08/2002 Full text: en
52 Lebanon In force 19/10/1994 06/04/1997 Full text: en
53 Lithuania In force 08/03/1994 15/12/1994 Full text: en
54 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 12/06/2000 13/02/2002 Full text: en | mk | ro
55 Malaysia Terminated 26/11/1982 Full text: en
56 Malaysia In force 25/06/1996 08/05/1997 Full text: en
57 Mauritania In force 14/03/1988 19/12/1989
58 Mauritius In force 20/01/2000 20/12/2000 Full text: en
59 Moldova, Republic of In force 14/08/1992 15/06/1997
60 Mongolia In force 06/11/1995 15/08/1996 Full text: en | mn | ro
61 Montenegro In force 28/11/1995 16/05/1997 Full text: en
62 Morocco In force 28/01/1994 03/02/2000 Full text: fr
63 Netherlands In force 19/04/1994 01/02/1995 Full text: en
64 Nigeria In force 18/12/1998 03/06/2005 Full text: en
65 Norway In force 11/06/1991 23/03/1992 Full text: en
66 Pakistan In force 10/07/1995 08/08/1996 Full text: en
67 Pakistan Terminated 21/01/1978 31/10/1978 Full text: en
68 Paraguay In force 21/05/1994 12/04/1995 Full text: es
69 Peru In force 16/05/1994 01/01/1995 Full text: es
70 Philippines In force 18/05/1994 14/06/1998 Full text: en
71 Poland In force 23/06/1994 30/12/1994 Full text: en
72 Portugal In force 17/11/1993 17/11/1994 Full text: en
73 Qatar In force 06/06/1996 27/04/1997 Full text: en
74 Russian Federation In force 29/09/1993 20/07/1996 Full text: ru
75 Senegal In force 19/06/1980 20/05/1984 Full text: en
76 Serbia In force 28/11/1995 13/09/1996 Full text: en
77 Slovakia In force 03/03/1994 07/03/1996 Full text: en
78 Slovenia In force 24/01/1996 24/11/1996 Full text: en
79 Spain In force 25/01/1995 07/12/1995 Full text: es
80 Sri Lanka In force 09/02/1981 03/06/1982 Full text: en
81 Sudan Signed (not in force) 08/12/1978 Full text: en
82 Sweden In force 29/05/2002 01/04/2003 Full text: en
83 Switzerland In force 25/10/1993 30/07/1994 Full text: en | fr
84 Syrian Arab Republic In force 24/06/2008 26/07/2009
85 Thailand In force 30/04/1993 20/08/1994 Full text: en
86 Tunisia In force 16/10/1995 08/08/1997 Full text: fr
87 Turkey Terminated 24/01/1991 17/04/1996 Full text: en
88 Turkey In force 03/03/2008 08/07/2010 Full text: en | fr | ro | tr
89 Turkmenistan In force 16/11/1994 29/03/1996 Full text: ro
90 Ukraine Signed (not in force) 23/02/1995
91 United Arab Emirates In force 11/04/1993 07/04/1996 Full text: en
92 United Kingdom Terminated 19/03/1976 22/11/1976 Full text: en
93 United Kingdom In force 13/07/1995 10/01/1996 Full text: en
94 United States of America In force 28/05/1992 15/01/1994 Full text: en
95 Uruguay In force 23/11/1990 29/08/1993 Full text: es
96 Uzbekistan In force 06/06/1996 30/05/1997 Full text: ro
97 Viet Nam In force 15/09/1994 16/08/1995 Full text: en