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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Belarus

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Armenia In force 26/05/2001 02/10/2002 Full text: ru
2 Austria In force 16/05/2001 01/06/2002 Full text: en
3 Azerbaijan Signed (not in force) 03/06/2010 Full text: ru
4 Bahrain In force 26/10/2002 16/06/2008 Full text: ar | en | ru
5 Belgium In force 09/02/1989 02/08/1991 Full text: fr | ru
6 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) Signed (not in force) 09/04/2002 Full text: en | fr
7 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 29/11/2004 22/01/2006 Full text: ru
8 Bulgaria In force 21/02/1996 11/11/1997 Full text: ru
9 Cambodia Signed (not in force) 23/04/2014 Full text: en | ru
10 China In force 11/01/1993 14/01/1995 Full text: zh
11 Croatia In force 26/06/2001 14/07/2005 Full text: en
12 Cuba In force 08/06/2000 16/08/2001 Full text: ru
13 Cyprus In force 29/05/1998 03/09/1998 Full text: ru
14 Czech Republic In force 14/10/1996 09/04/1998 Full text: en
15 Denmark In force 31/03/2004 20/07/2005 Full text: da | en | ru
16 Egypt In force 20/03/1997 18/01/1999 Full text: en
17 Estonia Signed (not in force) 21/10/2009 Full text: en | ru | et
18 Finland In force 08/06/2006 10/04/2008 Full text: en
19 Finland Terminated 28/10/1992 11/12/1994 Full text: en
20 France Signed (not in force) 28/10/1993 Full text: ru
21 Germany In force 02/04/1993 23/09/1996 Full text: de
22 India In force 27/11/2002 23/11/2003 Full text: en
23 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 14/07/1995 23/06/2000 Full text: en
24 Israel In force 11/04/2000 14/08/2003 Full text: en
25 Italy In force 25/07/1995 12/08/1997 Full text: en
26 Jordan In force 20/12/2002 22/12/2005 Full text: ar | en | ru
27 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of Signed (not in force) 24/08/2006 Full text: ko | ru
28 Korea, Republic of In force 22/04/1997 09/08/1997 Full text: en
29 Kuwait In force 10/07/2001 14/06/2003 Full text: ru | ar | en
30 Kyrgyzstan In force 30/03/1999 11/11/2001 Full text: en
31 Lao People's Democratic Republic Signed (not in force) 01/07/2013 Full text: ru
32 Latvia In force 03/03/1998 21/12/1998 Full text: ru
33 Lebanon In force 19/06/2001 29/12/2002 Full text: en
34 Libya In force 01/11/2000 23/02/2002 Full text: ar | en | ru
35 Lithuania In force 05/03/1999 16/05/2002 Full text: ru
36 Luxembourg In force 09/02/1989 18/08/1991 Full text: fr | ru
37 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Signed (not in force) 20/06/2001 Full text: en
38 Mexico In force 04/09/2008 27/08/2009 Full text: en
39 Moldova, Republic of In force 28/05/1999 19/11/1999 Full text: ru
40 Mongolia In force 28/05/2001 01/12/2001 Full text: mn | ru
41 Netherlands In force 11/04/1995 01/08/1996 Full text: en
42 Oman In force 10/05/2004 18/01/2005 Full text: ar | en | ru
43 Pakistan Signed (not in force) 22/01/1997 Full text: en
44 Poland In force 24/04/1992 18/01/1993 Full text: ru
45 Qatar In force 17/02/2001 06/08/2004 Full text: en | ar | ru
46 Romania In force 31/05/1995 08/01/1997 Full text: ru
47 Saudi Arabia In force 20/07/2009 07/08/2010 Full text: ar | en | ru
48 Serbia In force 06/03/1996 25/01/1997 Full text: en
49 Singapore In force 15/05/2000 13/01/2001 Full text: en
50 Slovakia In force 26/08/2005 01/09/2006 Full text: en
51 Slovenia Signed (not in force) 18/10/2006 Full text: en | ru | sl
52 Spain In force 26/10/1990 28/11/1991 Full text: es
53 Sweden In force 20/12/1994 01/11/1996 Full text: en
54 Switzerland In force 28/05/1993 13/07/1994 Full text: en | fr
55 Syrian Arab Republic In force 11/03/1998 01/10/1998 Full text: ar | en | ru
56 Tajikistan In force 03/09/1998 25/08/1999 Full text: ru
57 Turkey In force 08/08/1995 20/02/1997 Full text: ru
58 Turkey Signed (not in force) 14/02/2018
59 Ukraine In force 14/12/1995 11/06/1997 Full text: ru
60 United Arab Emirates In force 27/03/2000 16/02/2001 Full text: en
61 United Kingdom In force 01/03/1994 28/12/1994 Full text: en
62 United States of America Signed (not in force) 15/01/1994 Full text: en
63 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of In force 06/12/2007 13/08/2008 Full text: es
64 Viet Nam In force 08/07/1992 24/11/1994 Full text: ru
65 Yemen Signed (not in force) 18/07/2003 Full text: ar | ru | en