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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Albania

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Austria In force 18/03/1993 01/08/1995 Full text: de
2 Azerbaijan Signed (not in force) 09/02/2012 Full text: en
3 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 01/02/1999 18/10/2002 Full text: fr
4 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 17/06/2008 06/04/2009 Full text: en
5 Bulgaria In force 27/04/1994 28/01/1996 Full text: en
6 China In force 13/02/1993 01/09/1995 Full text: en
7 Croatia In force 10/05/1993 16/04/1994 Full text: en
8 Cyprus In force 05/08/2010 07/11/2011 Full text: en
9 Czech Republic In force 27/06/1994 07/07/1995 Full text: en
10 Denmark In force 05/09/1995 18/01/1996 Full text: en
11 Egypt In force 22/05/1993 06/04/1994 Full text: en
12 Finland In force 24/06/1997 20/02/1999 Full text: en
13 France In force 13/06/1995 14/06/1996 Full text: fr
14 Germany In force 31/10/1991 18/08/1995 Full text: de
15 Greece In force 01/08/1991 04/01/1995 Full text: en
16 Hungary In force 24/01/1996 01/04/1998 Full text: en
17 Iran, Islamic Republic of Signed (not in force) 18/11/2002
18 Israel In force 29/01/1996 18/02/1997 Full text: en
19 Italy In force 12/09/1991 29/01/1996 Full text: it
20 Korea, Republic of In force 15/12/2003 18/05/2006 Full text: en
21 Kuwait In force 12/12/2007 14/05/2013
22 Lithuania In force 28/03/2007 07/12/2007 Full text: en
23 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 04/12/1997 03/04/1998 Full text: en | mk | al
24 Malaysia In force 24/01/1994 29/03/1994 Full text: en
25 Malta Signed (not in force) 27/01/2011 Full text: en
26 Moldova, Republic of In force 11/06/2004 23/12/2004 Full text: en
27 Netherlands In force 15/04/1994 01/09/1995 Full text: en
28 Poland In force 05/03/1993 09/08/1993 Full text: en
29 Poland Signed (not in force) 01/11/2006
30 Portugal In force 11/09/1998 10/06/2007 Full text: pt
31 Qatar Signed (not in force) 18/10/2011 Full text: en
32 Romania In force 11/05/1995 02/09/1995 Full text: en
33 Russian Federation In force 11/04/1995 29/05/1996 Full text: al | ru
34 San Marino Signed (not in force) 18/05/2012 Full text: en
35 Serbia In force 26/11/2002 14/05/2004 Full text: en
36 Slovenia In force 23/10/1997 22/03/2000 Full text: en
37 Spain In force 05/06/2003 14/01/2004 Full text: en
38 Sweden In force 31/03/1995 01/04/1996 Full text: en
39 Switzerland In force 22/09/1992 30/04/1993 Full text: fr
40 Tunisia Signed (not in force) 30/10/1993 Full text: fr
41 Turkey In force 01/06/1992 26/12/1996 Full text: en
42 Ukraine Signed (not in force) 25/10/2002 Full text: en
43 United Kingdom In force 30/03/1994 30/08/1995 Full text: en
44 United States of America In force 11/01/1995 04/01/1998 Full text: en