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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information please contact Lisi Tuerk, Chief, International Investment Agreements Section at: iia@unctad.org.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 201

Switzerland

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 22/09/1992 30/04/1993 Full text: fr
2 Algeria In force 30/11/2004 15/08/2005 Full text: fr
3 Argentina In force 12/04/1991 06/11/1992 Full text: fr
4 Armenia In force 19/11/1998 04/11/2002 Full text: fr | en
5 Azerbaijan In force 23/02/2006 25/06/2007 Full text: fr | en
6 Bangladesh In force 14/10/2000 03/09/2001 Full text: fr | en
7 Barbados In force 29/03/1995 22/12/1995 Full text: en | fr
8 Belarus In force 28/05/1993 13/07/1994 Full text: en | fr
9 Benin In force 20/04/1966 06/10/1973 Full text: fr
10 Bolivia, Plurinational State of In force 06/11/1987 17/05/1991 Full text: en
11 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 05/09/2003 21/05/2005 Full text: en
12 Botswana In force 26/06/1998 13/04/2000 Full text: fr | en
13 Brazil Signed (not in force) 11/11/1994 Full text: pt
14 Bulgaria In force 28/10/1991 26/10/1993 Full text: fr
15 Burkina Faso In force 06/05/1969 15/09/1969 Full text: fr
16 Cabo Verde In force 28/10/1991 06/05/1992 Full text: fr
17 Cambodia In force 12/10/1996 28/03/2000 Full text: fr | en
18 Cameroon In force 28/01/1963 06/04/1964 Full text: fr
19 Central African Republic In force 28/02/1973 04/07/1973 Full text: fr
20 Chad In force 21/02/1967 31/10/1967 Full text: fr
21 Chile In force 24/09/1999 02/05/2002 Full text: fr | en
22 China Terminated 12/11/1986 18/03/1987 Full text: fr
23 China In force 27/01/2009 13/04/2010 Full text: fr | en
24 Colombia In force 17/05/2006 06/10/2009 Full text: en | fr
25 Congo, Democratic Republic of the In force 10/03/1972 10/05/1973 Full text: fr
26 Congo In force 18/10/1962 11/07/1964 Full text: fr
27 Costa Rica Terminated 01/09/1965 18/08/1966 Full text: fr
28 Costa Rica In force 01/08/2000 19/11/2002 Full text: es | en | fr
29 Côte d'Ivoire In force 26/06/1962 18/11/1962 Full text: fr
30 Croatia In force 30/10/1996 17/06/1997 Full text: en | fr
31 Cuba In force 28/06/1996 07/11/1997 Full text: fr | en
32 Czech Republic In force 05/10/1990 07/08/1991 Full text: en | fr
33 Djibouti In force 04/02/2001 10/06/2001 Full text: fr
34 Dominican Republic In force 27/08/2004 30/05/2006 Full text: fr | en
35 Ecuador In force 02/05/1968 11/09/1969 Full text: fr
36 Egypt Terminated 25/07/1973 04/06/1974 Full text: fr
37 Egypt In force 07/06/2010 15/05/2012 Full text: en
38 El Salvador In force 08/12/1994 16/09/1996 Full text: fr
39 Estonia In force 21/12/1992 18/08/1993 Full text: en | fr
40 Ethiopia In force 26/06/1998 07/12/1998 Full text: fr | en
41 Gambia In force 22/11/1993 30/03/1994 Full text: en | fr
42 Georgia In force 03/06/2014 17/04/2015 Full text: en
43 Ghana In force 08/10/1991 16/06/1993 Full text: fr | en
44 Guatemala In force 09/09/2002 03/05/2005 Full text: fr | en
45 Guinea In force 26/04/1962 29/07/1963 Full text: nl
46 Guyana Signed (not in force) 13/12/2005 Full text: en
47 Honduras In force 14/10/1993 31/08/1994 Full text: fr
48 Hong Kong, China SAR In force 22/09/1994 22/10/1994 Full text: en
49 Hungary In force 05/10/1988 16/05/1989 Full text: fr | en
50 India Terminated 04/04/1997 16/02/2000 Full text: en | fr
51 Indonesia Terminated 06/06/1974 09/04/1976 Full text: en
52 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 08/03/1998 01/11/2001 Full text: en
53 Jamaica In force 11/12/1990 21/11/1991 Full text: en | fr
54 Jordan Terminated 11/11/1976 02/03/1977 Full text: fr
55 Jordan In force 25/02/2001 11/12/2001 Full text: ar | en
56 Kazakhstan In force 12/05/1994 13/05/1998 Full text: en
57 Kenya In force 14/11/2006 10/07/2009 Full text: fr | en
58 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of In force 14/12/1998 15/11/2000 Full text: en
59 Korea, Republic of In force 07/04/1971 07/04/1971 Full text: en | fr
60 Kuwait In force 31/10/1998 17/12/2000 Full text: fr | en
61 Kyrgyzstan In force 29/01/1999 17/04/2003 Full text: fr | en
62 Lao People's Democratic Republic In force 04/12/1996 04/12/1996 Full text: fr
63 Latvia In force 22/12/1992 16/04/1993 Full text: en | fr
64 Lebanon In force 03/03/2000 20/04/2001 Full text: en
65 Lesotho In force 16/06/2004 07/05/2010 Full text: fr | en
66 Liberia In force 23/07/1963 22/09/1964 Full text: fr | en
67 Libya In force 08/12/2003 28/04/2004 Full text: fr | en
68 Lithuania In force 23/12/1992 17/05/1997 Full text: en | fr
69 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 26/09/1996 06/05/1997 Full text: en | fr
70 Madagascar Terminated 17/03/1964 31/03/1966 Full text: fr
71 Madagascar In force 19/11/2008 07/05/2015 Full text: fr | it
72 Malaysia In force 01/03/1978 09/06/1978 Full text: fr | en
73 Mali In force 08/03/1978 08/12/1978 Full text: fr
74 Malta Terminated 20/01/1965 23/02/1965 Full text: en
75 Mauritania In force 09/09/1976 30/05/1978 Full text: fr
76 Mauritius In force 26/11/1998 21/04/2000 Full text: en | fr
77 Mexico In force 10/07/1995 14/03/1996 Full text: en | es
78 Moldova, Republic of In force 30/11/1995 29/11/1996 Full text: fr | en
79 Mongolia In force 29/01/1997 09/09/1999 Full text: fr | en | mn
80 Montenegro In force 07/12/2005 11/07/2007 Full text: fr | en | sr
81 Morocco In force 17/12/1985 12/04/1991 Full text: fr
82 Mozambique In force 29/11/2002 17/02/2004 Full text: fr | en
83 Namibia In force 01/08/1994 26/04/2000 Full text: de | en
84 Nicaragua In force 30/11/1998 02/05/2000 Full text: en | fr
85 Niger In force 28/03/1962 17/11/1962 Full text: fr
86 Nigeria In force 30/11/2000 01/04/2003 Full text: fr
87 Oman In force 17/08/2004 18/01/2005 Full text: fr | en
88 Pakistan In force 11/07/1995 06/05/1996 Full text: en | fr
89 Panama In force 19/10/1983 22/08/1985 Full text: fr
90 Paraguay In force 31/01/1992 28/09/1992 Full text: fr | en
91 Peru In force 22/11/1991 23/11/1993 Full text: en | fr | es
92 Philippines In force 31/03/1997 23/04/1999 Full text: en | fr
93 Poland In force 08/11/1989 18/04/1990 Full text: fr | en
94 Qatar In force 12/11/2001 15/07/2004 Full text: fr | en
95 Romania In force 25/10/1993 30/07/1994 Full text: en | fr
96 Russian Federation In force 01/12/1990 26/08/1991 Full text: fr | ru
97 Saudi Arabia In force 01/04/2006 09/08/2008 Full text: fr
98 Senegal In force 16/08/1962 13/08/1964 Full text: fr
99 Serbia In force 07/12/2005 20/07/2007 Full text: fr | en
100 Singapore In force 06/03/1978 03/05/1978 Full text: fr | en
101 Slovakia In force 05/10/1990 07/08/1991 Full text: en
102 Slovenia In force 09/11/1995 20/03/1997 Full text: en | fr
103 South Africa Terminated 27/06/1995 30/11/1997 Full text: fr
104 Sri Lanka In force 23/09/1981 12/02/1982 Full text: fr | en
105 Sudan In force 17/02/1974 14/12/1974 Full text: fr | en
106 Sudan Signed (not in force) 24/10/2002
107 Syrian Arab Republic In force 09/05/2007 01/07/2008 Full text: fr
108 Syrian Arab Republic Terminated 22/06/1977 10/08/1978 Full text: en | fr | ar
109 Tajikistan In force 11/06/2009 26/10/2011 Full text: de | en
110 Tanzania, United Republic of Terminated 03/05/1965 16/09/1965 Full text: fr
111 Tanzania, United Republic of In force 08/04/2004 06/04/2006 Full text: en
112 Thailand In force 17/11/1997 21/07/1999 Full text: en
113 Togo In force 17/01/1964 09/08/1966 Full text: fr
114 Trinidad and Tobago In force 26/10/2010 04/07/2012 Full text: en
115 Tunisia Terminated 02/12/1961 19/01/1964 Full text: fr
116 Tunisia In force 16/10/2012 08/07/2014 Full text: en | fr | ar
117 Turkey In force 03/03/1988 21/02/1990 Full text: fr | en
118 Turkmenistan In force 15/05/2008 02/04/2009 Full text: fr | en
119 Uganda In force 23/08/1971 08/05/1972 Full text: fr | en
120 Ukraine In force 20/04/1995 21/01/1997 Full text: en | fr
121 United Arab Emirates In force 03/11/1998 16/08/1999 Full text: en | fr
122 Uruguay In force 07/10/1988 22/04/1991 Full text: fr | en
123 Uzbekistan In force 16/04/1993 05/11/1993 Full text: en | fr
124 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of In force 18/11/1993 30/11/1994 Full text: fr | en
125 Viet Nam In force 03/07/1992 03/12/1992 Full text: fr
126 Zambia In force 03/08/1994 07/03/1995 Full text: en | fr
127 Zimbabwe In force 15/08/1996 09/02/2001 Full text: fr | en