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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Bulgaria

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 27/04/1994 28/01/1996 Full text: en
2 Algeria In force 25/10/1998 06/06/2002 Full text: fr
3 Argentina In force 21/09/1993 11/03/1997 Full text: en | es
4 Armenia In force 10/04/1995 27/03/1996
5 Austria In force 22/01/1997 01/11/1997 Full text: de | en
6 Azerbaijan Signed (not in force) 07/10/2004
7 Bahrain Signed (not in force) 26/06/2009
8 Belarus In force 21/02/1996 11/11/1997 Full text: ru
9 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 25/10/1988 29/05/1991 Full text: fr
10 China In force 27/06/1989 21/08/1994 Full text: en
11 Croatia In force 25/06/1996 20/02/1998 Full text: en
12 Cuba In force 16/12/1998 24/05/2000
13 Cyprus In force 12/11/1987 18/05/1988 Full text: en
14 Czech Republic In force 17/03/1999 30/09/2000 Full text: en
15 Denmark In force 14/04/1993 20/05/1995 Full text: en
16 Egypt In force 15/03/1998 08/06/2000 Full text: en | ar
17 Finland Terminated 16/02/1984 16/07/1985 Full text: en
18 Finland In force 03/10/1997 16/04/1999 Full text: en | fi
19 France In force 05/04/1989 01/05/1990 Full text: fr
20 Georgia In force 19/01/1995 06/08/1999
21 Germany In force 12/04/1986 10/03/1988 Full text: en
22 Ghana Signed (not in force) 20/10/1989 Full text: en
23 Greece In force 12/03/1993 29/04/1995 Full text: en
24 Hungary In force 08/06/1994 07/09/1995 Full text: en
25 India In force 29/10/1998 23/09/1999 Full text: en
26 Indonesia Terminated 13/09/2003 23/01/2005 Full text: en
27 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 13/11/1998 24/08/2003
28 Israel In force 06/12/1993 17/12/1996 Full text: en
29 Italy Terminated 05/12/1988 27/12/1990 Full text: it
30 Jordan In force 07/08/2002 19/04/2003
31 Kazakhstan In force 15/09/1999 20/08/2001 Full text: ru
32 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of Signed (not in force) 16/06/1999
33 Korea, Republic of In force 12/06/2006 16/11/2006 Full text: en
34 Kuwait In force 17/06/1997 16/09/1998 Full text: en
35 Latvia In force 04/12/2003 23/07/2004 Full text: en
36 Lebanon In force 01/06/1999 16/02/2000 Full text: en
37 Libya In force 19/11/1999 19/01/2004
38 Lithuania In force 21/11/2005 25/04/2006 Full text: fr | en | bg | lt
39 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 22/02/1999 05/06/1999
40 Malta In force 12/06/1984 07/02/1985 Full text: en
41 Moldova, Republic of In force 17/04/1996 12/06/1997
42 Mongolia Signed (not in force) 06/06/2000 Full text: bg | mn | ru
43 Morocco In force 22/05/1996 19/02/2000 Full text: fr
44 Netherlands Terminated 08/03/1988 24/05/1990 Full text: nl | en
45 Netherlands In force 06/10/1999 01/03/2001 Full text: en
46 Nigeria Signed (not in force) 21/12/1998
47 Oman In force 03/02/2007 22/10/2014 Full text: en | ar
48 Pakistan Signed (not in force) 12/02/2002
49 Poland In force 11/04/1994 09/03/1995 Full text: en
50 Portugal In force 27/05/1993 20/11/2000 Full text: en
51 Romania In force 01/06/1994 23/05/1995 Full text: en
52 Russian Federation In force 08/06/1993 18/12/2005 Full text: ru
53 San Marino In force 23/02/2007 26/06/2007
54 Serbia In force 13/02/1996 13/09/1996 Full text: sr
55 Singapore In force 15/09/2003 10/02/2006 Full text: en
56 Slovakia In force 21/06/1994 09/03/1995 Full text: en
57 Slovenia In force 30/06/1998 26/11/2000
58 Spain In force 05/09/1995 22/04/1998 Full text: es
59 Sudan Signed (not in force) 03/04/2002
60 Sweden In force 19/04/1994 01/04/1995 Full text: en
61 Switzerland In force 28/10/1991 26/10/1993 Full text: fr
62 Syrian Arab Republic In force 21/05/2000 10/11/2001
63 Thailand In force 11/09/2003 12/08/2004 Full text: en
64 Tunisia In force 24/11/2000 15/10/2003 Full text: en
65 Turkey In force 06/07/1994 22/09/1997 Full text: en
66 Ukraine In force 08/12/1994 10/12/1995 Full text: ru
67 United Kingdom In force 11/12/1995 24/06/1997 Full text: en
68 United States of America In force 23/09/1992 02/06/1994 Full text: en
69 Uzbekistan In force 24/06/1998 31/03/1999
70 Viet Nam In force 19/09/1996 15/05/1998 Full text: en
71 Yemen In force 12/04/2002 11/04/2003