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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

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No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 13/02/1993 01/09/1995 Full text: en
2 Algeria In force 17/10/1996 28/01/2003 Full text: fr
3 Argentina In force 05/11/1992 01/08/1994 Full text: en
4 Armenia In force 04/07/1992 18/03/1995 Full text: zh
5 Australia In force 11/07/1988 11/07/1988 Full text: en
6 Austria In force 12/09/1985 11/10/1986 Full text: de
7 Azerbaijan In force 08/03/1994 01/04/1995 Full text: en
8 Bahamas Signed (not in force) 04/09/2009
9 Bahrain In force 17/06/1999 27/04/2000 Full text: en
10 Bangladesh In force 12/09/1996 25/03/1997
11 Barbados In force 20/07/1998 01/10/1999 Full text: en
12 Belarus In force 11/01/1993 14/01/1995 Full text: zh
13 Benin Signed (not in force) 18/02/2004 Full text: en
14 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) Terminated 04/06/1984 05/10/1986 Full text: en | fr
15 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 06/06/2005 01/12/2009 Full text: en | fr
16 Bolivia, Plurinational State of In force 08/05/1992 01/09/1996 Full text: en
17 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 26/06/2002 01/01/2005 Full text: en
18 Botswana Signed (not in force) 12/06/2000 Full text: en
19 Brunei Darussalam Signed (not in force) 17/11/2000 Full text: en
20 Bulgaria In force 27/06/1989 21/08/1994 Full text: en
21 Cabo Verde In force 21/04/1998 01/01/2001 Full text: en
22 Cambodia In force 19/07/1996 01/02/2000 Full text: en
23 Cameroon In force 10/09/1997 24/07/2014
24 Canada In force 09/09/2012 01/10/2014 Full text: en
25 Chad Signed (not in force) 26/04/2010
26 Chile In force 23/03/1994 01/08/1995 Full text: en
27 Colombia In force 22/11/2008 02/07/2013 Full text: en
28 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Signed (not in force) 18/12/1997
29 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Signed (not in force) 11/08/2011
30 Congo In force 20/03/2000 01/07/2015 Full text: fr
31 Costa Rica Signed (not in force) 24/10/2007
32 Côte d'Ivoire Signed (not in force) 30/09/2002 Full text: en
33 Croatia In force 07/06/1993 01/07/1994 Full text: en
34 Cuba In force 24/04/1995 01/08/1996 Full text: en
35 Cyprus In force 15/01/2001 29/04/2002 Full text: en
36 Czech Republic Terminated 04/12/1991 01/12/1992 Full text: en
37 Czech Republic In force 08/12/2005 01/09/2006 Full text: en
38 Denmark In force 29/04/1985 29/04/1985 Full text: en
39 Djibouti Signed (not in force) 18/08/2003 Full text: en
40 Ecuador In force 21/03/1994 01/07/1997 Full text: es
41 Egypt In force 21/04/1994 01/04/1996 Full text: en
42 Equatorial Guinea In force 20/10/2005 15/11/2006
43 Estonia In force 02/09/1993 01/06/1994 Full text: en
44 Ethiopia In force 11/05/1998 01/05/2000 Full text: en
45 Finland In force 15/11/2004 15/11/2006 Full text: en
46 Finland Terminated 04/09/1984 26/01/1986 Full text: en | fr
47 France Terminated 30/05/1984 19/03/1985 Full text: fr
48 France In force 26/11/2007 20/08/2010 Full text: fr
49 Gabon In force 09/05/1997 16/02/2009
50 Georgia In force 03/06/1993 01/03/1995 Full text: en
51 Germany In force 01/12/2003 11/11/2005 Full text: en
52 Germany Terminated 07/10/1983 18/03/1985 Full text: de | zh
53 Ghana In force 12/10/1989 22/11/1990 Full text: en
54 Greece In force 25/06/1992 21/12/1993 Full text: en
55 Guinea Signed (not in force) 18/11/2005
56 Guyana In force 27/03/2003 26/10/2004 Full text: en
57 Hungary In force 29/05/1991 01/04/1993 Full text: en
58 Iceland In force 31/03/1994 01/03/1997 Full text: en
59 India In force 21/11/2006 01/08/2007 Full text: en
60 Indonesia Terminated 18/11/1994 01/04/1995 Full text: en
61 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 06/2000 01/07/2005 Full text: en
62 Israel In force 10/04/1995 13/01/2009 Full text: en
63 Italy In force 28/01/1985 28/08/1987 Full text: en
64 Jamaica In force 26/10/1994 01/04/1996 Full text: en
65 Japan In force 27/08/1988 14/05/1989 Full text: en
66 Jordan Signed (not in force) 15/11/2001 Full text: en | ar
67 Kazakhstan In force 10/08/1992 13/08/1994 Full text: ru
68 Kenya Signed (not in force) 16/07/2001 Full text: en
69 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of In force 22/03/2005 01/10/2005 Full text: en
70 Korea, Republic of Terminated 30/09/1992 04/12/1992 Full text: en
71 Korea, Republic of In force 07/09/2007 01/12/2007 Full text: en
72 Kuwait In force 23/11/1985 24/12/1986 Full text: en
73 Kyrgyzstan In force 14/05/1992 08/09/1995 Full text: ru
74 Lao People's Democratic Republic In force 31/01/1993 01/06/1993 Full text: en
75 Latvia In force 15/04/2004 01/02/2006 Full text: en
76 Lebanon In force 13/06/1996 10/07/1997 Full text: en
77 Libya Signed (not in force) 04/08/2010
78 Lithuania In force 08/11/1993 01/06/1994 Full text: en
79 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 09/06/1997 01/11/1997 Full text: en | zh
80 Madagascar In force 21/11/2005 01/07/2007 Full text: fr
81 Malaysia In force 21/11/1988 31/03/1990 Full text: en
82 Mali In force 12/02/2009 16/07/2009 Full text: zh | fr
83 Malta In force 22/02/2009 01/04/2009 Full text: en
84 Mauritius In force 04/05/1996 08/06/1997 Full text: en
85 Mexico In force 11/07/2008 06/06/2009 Full text: en
86 Moldova, Republic of In force 06/11/1992 01/03/1995
87 Mongolia In force 25/08/1991 01/11/1993 Full text: en | zh
88 Morocco In force 27/03/1995 27/11/1999 Full text: fr
89 Mozambique In force 10/07/2001 26/02/2002
90 Myanmar In force 12/12/2001 21/05/2002 Full text: en
91 Namibia Signed (not in force) 17/11/2005
92 Netherlands In force 26/11/2001 01/08/2004 Full text: en
93 Netherlands Terminated 17/06/1985 01/02/1987 Full text: en
94 New Zealand In force 22/11/1988 25/03/1989 Full text: en
95 Nigeria Terminated 12/05/1997
96 Nigeria In force 27/08/2001 18/02/2010 Full text: en
97 Norway In force 21/11/1984 10/07/1985 Full text: en
98 Oman In force 18/03/1995 01/08/1995 Full text: en | ar
99 Pakistan In force 12/02/1989 30/09/1990 Full text: en
100 Papua New Guinea In force 12/04/1991 12/02/1993 Full text: en
101 Peru In force 09/06/1994 01/02/1995 Full text: en | es
102 Philippines In force 20/07/1992 08/09/1995 Full text: en
103 Poland In force 07/06/1988 08/01/1989 Full text: en
104 Portugal Terminated 03/02/1992 01/12/1992 Full text: en
105 Portugal In force 09/12/2005 26/07/2008 Full text: pt | en
106 Qatar In force 09/04/1999 01/04/2000 Full text: en
107 Romania In force 12/07/1994 01/09/1995 Full text: en
108 Russian Federation Terminated 21/07/1990 26/07/1991
109 Russian Federation In force 09/11/2006 01/05/2009 Full text: en | ru
110 Saudi Arabia In force 29/02/1996 01/05/1997 Full text: en
111 Serbia In force 18/12/1995 13/09/1996 Full text: en
112 Seychelles Signed (not in force) 10/02/2007
113 Sierra Leone Signed (not in force) 16/05/2001
114 Singapore In force 21/11/1985 07/02/1986 Full text: en | fr | zh
115 Slovakia In force 04/12/1991 01/12/1992 Full text: en
116 Slovenia In force 13/09/1993 01/01/1995 Full text: en
117 South Africa In force 30/12/1997 01/04/1998 Full text: en
118 Spain Terminated 06/02/1992 01/05/1993 Full text: es
119 Spain In force 14/11/2005 01/07/2008 Full text: en
120 Sri Lanka In force 13/03/1986 25/03/1987 Full text: en
121 Sudan In force 30/05/1997 01/07/1998
122 Sweden In force 29/03/1982 29/03/1982 Full text: en
123 Switzerland Terminated 12/11/1986 18/03/1987 Full text: fr
124 Switzerland In force 27/01/2009 13/04/2010 Full text: fr | en
125 Syrian Arab Republic In force 09/12/1996 01/11/2001 Full text: en
126 Tajikistan In force 09/03/1993 20/01/1994
127 Tanzania, United Republic of In force 24/03/2013 17/04/2014 Full text: en
128 Thailand In force 12/03/1985 13/12/1985 Full text: en
129 Trinidad and Tobago In force 22/07/2002 07/12/2004 Full text: en
130 Tunisia In force 21/06/2004 01/07/2006 Full text: en
131 Turkey In force 13/11/1990 20/08/1994 Full text: en | zh | tr
132 Turkey Signed (not in force) 29/07/2015
133 Turkmenistan In force 21/11/1992 04/06/1994
134 Uganda Signed (not in force) 27/05/2004 Full text: en
135 Ukraine In force 31/10/1992 29/05/1993
136 United Arab Emirates In force 01/07/1993 28/09/1994 Full text: en | ar
137 United Kingdom In force 15/05/1986 15/05/1986 Full text: en
138 Uruguay In force 02/12/1993 01/12/1997 Full text: en
139 Uzbekistan Terminated 13/03/1992 12/04/1994
140 Uzbekistan In force 19/04/2011 01/09/2011 Full text: en
141 Vanuatu Signed (not in force) 07/04/2006
142 Viet Nam In force 02/12/1992 01/09/1993 Full text: en
143 Yemen In force 16/02/1998 10/04/2002
144 Zambia Signed (not in force) 21/06/1996
145 Zimbabwe In force 21/05/1996 01/03/1998 Full text: en