Warning! Javascript is disabled. Please enable javascript for a completly functioning application.

International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Denmark

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 05/09/1995 18/01/1996 Full text: en
2 Algeria In force 25/01/1999 15/07/2005 Full text: en
3 Argentina In force 06/11/1992 02/02/1995 Full text: en | es
4 Bangladesh In force 05/11/2009 27/02/2013 Full text: en
5 Belarus In force 31/03/2004 20/07/2005 Full text: da | en | ru
6 Bolivia, Plurinational State of Terminated 12/03/1995 22/03/1997 Full text: en
7 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 24/03/2004 03/06/2008 Full text: en
8 Brazil Signed (not in force) 04/05/1995 Full text: pt
9 Bulgaria In force 14/04/1993 20/05/1995 Full text: en
10 Chile In force 28/05/1993 03/11/1995 Full text: en
11 China In force 29/04/1985 29/04/1985 Full text: en
12 Croatia In force 05/07/2000 12/01/2002 Full text: en
13 Cuba Signed (not in force) 19/02/2001 Full text: en
14 Czech Republic Terminated 06/03/1991 19/09/1992 Full text: en | cs
15 Egypt In force 24/06/1999 29/10/2000 Full text: en | ar
16 Estonia Terminated 06/11/1991 24/02/1993 Full text: en
17 Ethiopia In force 24/04/2001 21/08/2005 Full text: en
18 Ghana In force 13/01/1992 06/01/1995 Full text: en
19 Hong Kong, China SAR In force 02/02/1994 04/03/1994 Full text: en
20 Hungary In force 02/05/1988 18/10/1988 Full text: en
21 India Terminated 06/09/1995 28/08/1996 Full text: en
22 Indonesia Terminated 30/01/1968 02/07/1968 Full text: en
23 Indonesia In force 22/01/2007 15/10/2009 Full text: en
24 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of In force 10/09/1996 25/12/1997 Full text: en
25 Korea, Republic of In force 02/06/1988 02/06/1988 Full text: en
26 Kuwait In force 01/06/2001 29/06/2002 Full text: en
27 Kyrgyzstan Signed (not in force) 01/01/2001 Full text: en
28 Lao People's Democratic Republic In force 09/09/1998 09/05/1999 Full text: en
29 Latvia In force 30/03/1992 28/11/1994 Full text: en
30 Lithuania In force 30/03/1992 08/01/1993 Full text: en
31 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 08/05/2015 30/06/2016 Full text: en
32 Malaysia In force 06/01/1992 18/09/1992 Full text: en
33 Mexico In force 13/04/2000 24/09/2000 Full text: en
34 Mongolia In force 13/03/1995 02/03/1996 Full text: en
35 Montenegro In force 11/02/2009 23/10/2009 Full text: en
36 Morocco In force 22/05/2003 18/09/2013 Full text: en
37 Mozambique In force 12/10/2002 30/12/2002
38 Nicaragua In force 12/03/1995 23/09/2005 Full text: en
39 Pakistan In force 18/07/1996 25/09/1996 Full text: en
40 Paraguay Signed (not in force) 22/04/1993 Full text: da
41 Peru In force 23/11/1994 17/02/1995 Full text: en | es
42 Philippines In force 25/09/1997 19/04/1998 Full text: en
43 Poland In force 01/05/1990 13/10/1990 Full text: en
44 Romania Terminated 14/06/1994 24/08/1995 Full text: en
45 Russian Federation Terminated 01/05/1990
46 Russian Federation In force 04/11/1993 26/08/1996 Full text: en | ru
47 Serbia In force 15/05/2009 23/01/2010 Full text: sr
48 Slovakia In force 06/03/1991 19/09/1992 Full text: cs
49 Slovenia In force 12/05/1999 30/03/2002 Full text: en
50 South Africa Terminated 22/02/1996 23/04/1997 Full text: en
51 Sri Lanka In force 04/06/1985 04/06/1985 Full text: en
52 Tanzania, United Republic of In force 22/04/1999 21/10/2005 Full text: en
53 Tunisia In force 28/06/1996 11/04/1997 Full text: en
54 Turkey In force 07/02/1990 01/08/1992 Full text: en
55 Uganda In force 26/11/2001 19/10/2005 Full text: en
56 Ukraine In force 23/10/1992 29/04/1994 Full text: en
57 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of In force 28/11/1994 19/09/1996 Full text: en
58 Viet Nam In force 23/07/1993 07/08/1994 Full text: en
59 Zimbabwe In force 25/10/1996 07/02/1999 Full text: da