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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 201

Finland

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 24/06/1997 20/02/1999 Full text: en
2 Algeria In force 13/01/2005 25/02/2007 Full text: en
3 Argentina In force 05/11/1993 03/05/1996 Full text: en
4 Armenia In force 05/10/2004 20/03/2007 Full text: en
5 Azerbaijan In force 26/02/2003 10/12/2004 Full text: en
6 Belarus In force 08/06/2006 10/04/2008 Full text: en
7 Belarus Terminated 28/10/1992 11/12/1994 Full text: en
8 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 01/11/2000 08/12/2001 Full text: en
9 Brazil Signed (not in force) 28/03/1995 Full text: en
10 Bulgaria Terminated 16/02/1984 16/07/1985 Full text: en
11 Bulgaria In force 03/10/1997 16/04/1999 Full text: en | fi
12 Chile In force 27/05/1993 01/05/1996 Full text: en
13 China In force 15/11/2004 15/11/2006 Full text: en
14 China Terminated 04/09/1984 26/01/1986 Full text: en | fr
15 Costa Rica Signed (not in force) 28/11/2001 Full text: es
16 Croatia In force 01/06/1999 01/11/2002 Full text: en
17 Cuba Signed (not in force) 17/12/2001 Full text: en
18 Czech Republic In force 06/11/1990 23/10/1991 Full text: en
19 Dominican Republic In force 27/11/2001 21/04/2007 Full text: en
20 Ecuador Terminated 18/04/2001 16/12/2001 Full text: en
21 Egypt In force 03/03/2004 05/02/2005 Full text: en
22 Egypt Terminated 05/05/1980 22/01/1982 Full text: en | fr
23 El Salvador In force 20/05/2002 20/02/2003 Full text: en
24 Estonia In force 13/02/1992 02/12/1992 Full text: en
25 Ethiopia In force 23/02/2006 03/05/2007 Full text: en
26 Georgia In force 24/11/2006 30/12/2007 Full text: en | fi
27 Guatemala In force 14/04/2005 06/01/2007 Full text: en
28 Hong Kong, China SAR In force 02/07/2009 16/03/2014 Full text: en
29 Hungary In force 06/06/1988 12/05/1989 Full text: en
30 India In force 07/11/2002 09/04/2003 Full text: en
31 Indonesia Terminated 13/03/1996 07/06/1997 Full text: en | fi
32 Indonesia In force 12/09/2006 02/08/2008 Full text: en | fi
33 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 04/11/2002 25/06/2004 Full text: en
34 Jordan In force 01/11/2006 18/12/2007 Full text: en
35 Kazakhstan In force 29/09/1992 14/02/1998 Full text: en
36 Kazakhstan Signed (not in force) 09/01/2007 Full text: en | fi
37 Kenya In force 01/09/2008 02/10/2009 Full text: en
38 Korea, Republic of In force 21/10/1993 11/05/1996 Full text: en
39 Kuwait In force 10/03/1996 21/05/1997 Full text: en
40 Kyrgyzstan In force 03/04/2003 08/12/2004 Full text: en
41 Latvia In force 05/03/1992 07/12/1992 Full text: en
42 Lebanon In force 25/08/1997 12/01/2000 Full text: en
43 Lithuania In force 12/06/1992 08/01/1993 Full text: en
44 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 25/01/2001 22/03/2002 Full text: en
45 Malaysia In force 15/04/1985 03/01/1988 Full text: en
46 Mauritius In force 12/09/2007 17/10/2008 Full text: en
47 Mexico In force 22/02/1999 30/08/2000 Full text: es
48 Moldova, Republic of In force 25/08/1995 21/06/1997 Full text: en
49 Mongolia In force 15/05/2007 19/06/2008 Full text: en | fi | mn
50 Montenegro In force 14/11/2008 29/04/2010 Full text: en
51 Morocco In force 01/10/2001 06/04/2003 Full text: en
52 Mozambique In force 03/09/2004 21/09/2005 Full text: en
53 Namibia In force 31/10/2002 21/05/2005 Full text: en
54 Nepal In force 03/02/2009 28/01/2011 Full text: en
55 Nicaragua Signed (not in force) 17/09/2003 Full text: en | es
56 Nigeria In force 22/06/2005 20/03/2007 Full text: en
57 Oman In force 27/09/1997 20/02/1999 Full text: en | ar
58 Panama In force 19/02/2009 11/11/2010 Full text: en | es | fi | fr
59 Peru In force 02/05/1995 14/06/1996 Full text: es
60 Philippines In force 25/03/1998 16/04/1999 Full text: en
61 Poland In force 25/11/1996 13/03/1998 Full text: en
62 Poland Terminated 05/04/1990 21/02/1991 Full text: en
63 Qatar In force 12/11/2001 08/05/2003 Full text: en
64 Romania In force 26/03/1992 06/01/1993 Full text: en
65 Russian Federation In force 08/02/1989 15/08/1991 Full text: ru | en | fi | fr
66 Serbia In force 23/05/2005 29/10/2005 Full text: en
67 Slovakia In force 06/11/1990 23/10/1991 Full text: en
68 Slovenia In force 01/06/1998 03/06/2000 Full text: en
69 South Africa In force 14/09/1998 03/10/1999 Full text: en
70 Sri Lanka In force 27/04/1985 25/10/1987 Full text: en
71 Tanzania, United Republic of In force 19/06/2001 30/10/2002 Full text: en
72 Thailand In force 18/03/1994 18/05/1996 Full text: en
73 Tunisia In force 04/10/2001 04/09/2003 Full text: en
74 Turkey In force 13/05/1993 23/04/1995 Full text: en
75 Ukraine Terminated 14/05/1992 30/01/1994
76 Ukraine In force 07/10/2004 07/12/2005 Full text: en
77 United Arab Emirates In force 12/03/1996 15/05/1997 Full text: en
78 Uruguay In force 21/03/2002 18/06/2004 Full text: es
79 Uzbekistan In force 01/10/1992 22/10/1993 Full text: en
80 Viet Nam Terminated 13/09/1993 02/05/1996 Full text: en
81 Viet Nam In force 21/02/2008 04/06/2009 Full text: en | fi
82 Zambia Signed (not in force) 07/09/2005 Full text: en