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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Germany

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Afghanistan In force 20/04/2005 12/10/2007 Full text: en
2 Albania In force 31/10/1991 18/08/1995 Full text: de
3 Algeria In force 11/03/1996 30/05/2002 Full text: fr
4 Angola In force 30/10/2003 01/03/2007 Full text: de | pt
5 Antigua and Barbuda In force 05/11/1998 28/02/2001 Full text: en | de
6 Argentina In force 09/04/1991 08/11/1993 Full text: es
7 Armenia In force 21/12/1995 04/08/2000 Full text: de
8 Azerbaijan In force 22/12/1995 29/07/1998 Full text: de
9 Bahrain In force 05/02/2007 27/05/2010 Full text: en
10 Bangladesh In force 06/05/1981 14/09/1986 Full text: en
11 Barbados In force 02/12/1994 11/05/2002 Full text: en
12 Belarus In force 02/04/1993 23/09/1996 Full text: de
13 Benin In force 29/06/1978 18/07/1985 Full text: en
14 Bolivia, Plurinational State of Terminated 23/03/1987 09/11/1990 Full text: en
15 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 18/10/2001 11/11/2007 Full text: en
16 Botswana In force 23/05/2000 06/08/2007 Full text: en | de
17 Brazil Signed (not in force) 21/09/1995
18 Brunei Darussalam In force 30/03/1998 15/06/2004 Full text: en | de
19 Bulgaria In force 12/04/1986 10/03/1988 Full text: en
20 Burkina Faso In force 22/10/1996 21/11/2009 Full text: fr
21 Burundi In force 10/09/1984 09/12/1987 Full text: en
22 Cabo Verde In force 18/01/1990 15/12/1993 Full text: de
23 Cambodia In force 15/02/1999 14/04/2002 Full text: en | de
24 Cameroon In force 29/06/1962 21/11/1963 Full text: fr
25 Central African Republic In force 23/08/1965 21/01/1968 Full text: fr | de
26 Chad In force 11/04/1967 23/11/1968 Full text: fr | de
27 Chile In force 21/10/1991 08/05/1999 Full text: es
28 China In force 01/12/2003 11/11/2005 Full text: en
29 China Terminated 07/10/1983 18/03/1985 Full text: de | zh
30 Congo, Democratic Republic of the In force 18/03/1969 22/07/1971 Full text: fr
31 Congo In force 13/09/1965 14/10/1967 Full text: de | fr
32 Congo Signed (not in force) 22/11/2010
33 Costa Rica In force 13/09/1994 24/03/1998 Full text: es
34 Côte d'Ivoire In force 27/10/1966 10/06/1968 Full text: fr | de
35 Croatia In force 21/03/1997 28/09/2000 Full text: de
36 Cuba In force 30/04/1996 22/11/1998 Full text: es | de
37 Czech Republic In force 02/10/1990 02/08/1992 Full text: cs
38 Dominica In force 01/10/1984 11/05/1986 Full text: en
39 Ecuador Terminated 28/06/1965 Full text: es
40 Ecuador In force 21/03/1996 12/02/1999 Full text: es | de
41 Egypt Terminated 05/07/1974 22/07/1978 Full text: en
42 Egypt In force 16/06/2005 22/11/2009 Full text: en
43 El Salvador In force 11/12/1997 15/04/2001 Full text: es | de
44 Estonia In force 12/11/1992 12/01/1997 Full text: de
45 Ethiopia Terminated 21/04/1964 Full text: en
46 Ethiopia In force 19/01/2004 04/05/2006 Full text: en
47 Gabon Terminated 16/05/1969 29/03/1971 Full text: fr
48 Gabon In force 15/09/1998 04/07/2007 Full text: fr | de
49 Georgia In force 25/06/1993 27/09/1998 Full text: de
50 Ghana In force 24/02/1995 23/11/1998 Full text: de
51 Greece In force 27/03/1961 15/07/1963 Full text: de
52 Guatemala In force 17/10/2003 29/10/2006 Full text: en | es
53 Guinea Terminated 19/04/1962 13/03/1965 Full text: fr
54 Guinea In force 08/11/2006 14/08/2014 Full text: fr | de
55 Guyana In force 06/12/1989 09/03/1994 Full text: en | de
56 Haiti In force 14/08/1973 01/12/1975 Full text: en
57 Honduras In force 21/03/1995 27/05/1998 Full text: de
58 Hong Kong, China SAR In force 31/01/1996 19/02/1998 Full text: en
59 Hungary In force 30/04/1986 07/11/1987 Full text: de | hu
60 India Terminated 10/07/1995 13/07/1998 Full text: en
61 Indonesia Terminated 08/11/1968 19/04/1971 Full text: en
62 Indonesia Terminated 14/05/2003 02/06/2007 Full text: en
63 Iran, Islamic Republic of Terminated 11/11/1965 06/05/1968 Full text: en
64 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 17/08/2002 23/06/2005 Full text: en
65 Iraq Signed (not in force) 04/12/2010
66 Israel Signed (not in force) 24/06/1976 Full text: en
67 Jamaica In force 24/09/1992 29/05/1996 Full text: en | de
68 Jordan In force 13/11/2007 28/08/2010 Full text: en | ar
69 Jordan Terminated 15/07/1974 10/10/1977 Full text: en | fr | de
70 Kazakhstan In force 22/09/1992 10/05/1995 Full text: de
71 Kenya In force 03/05/1996 07/12/2000 Full text: en
72 Korea, Republic of In force 04/02/1964 15/01/1967 Full text: en
73 Kuwait In force 30/03/1994 15/11/1997 Full text: en
74 Kyrgyzstan In force 28/08/1997 16/04/2006 Full text: de | ru
75 Lao People's Democratic Republic In force 09/08/1996 24/03/1999 Full text: en | de
76 Latvia In force 20/04/1993 09/06/1996 Full text: de
77 Lebanon In force 18/03/1997 25/03/1999 Full text: en
78 Lesotho In force 11/11/1982 17/08/1985 Full text: en
79 Liberia In force 12/12/1961 22/10/1967 Full text: en | de
80 Libya In force 15/10/2004 14/07/2010 Full text: en
81 Lithuania In force 28/02/1992 27/06/1997 Full text: de
82 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 10/09/1996 17/09/2000 Full text: de | mk
83 Madagascar Terminated 21/09/1962 21/03/1966 Full text: fr
84 Madagascar In force 01/08/2006 17/10/2015 Full text: de | fr
85 Malaysia In force 22/12/1960 06/07/1963 Full text: en
86 Mali In force 28/06/1977 16/05/1980 Full text: en
87 Malta In force 17/09/1974 14/12/1975 Full text: en
88 Mauritania In force 08/12/1982 26/04/1986 Full text: fr
89 Mauritius In force 25/05/1971 27/08/1973 Full text: en | de
90 Mexico In force 25/08/1998 23/02/2001 Full text: en
91 Moldova, Republic of In force 28/02/1994 15/06/2006 Full text: de | en
92 Mongolia In force 26/06/1991 23/06/1996 Full text: de | mn
93 Montenegro In force 10/07/1989 25/10/1990 Full text: en
94 Morocco Terminated 31/08/1961 21/01/1968 Full text: ar | de | fr
95 Morocco In force 06/08/2001 12/04/2008 Full text: fr | de
96 Mozambique In force 06/03/2002 15/09/2007 Full text: de | pt
97 Namibia In force 21/01/1994 21/12/1997 Full text: en
98 Nepal In force 20/10/1986 07/07/1988 Full text: en | de
99 Nicaragua In force 06/05/1996 19/01/2001 Full text: es
100 Niger In force 29/10/1964 10/01/1966 Full text: fr
101 Nigeria In force 28/03/2000 20/09/2007 Full text: en
102 Occupied Palestinian territory In force 10/07/2000 19/09/2008 Full text: en | de
103 Oman Terminated 25/06/1979 04/02/1986 Full text: en
104 Oman In force 30/05/2007 04/04/2010 Full text: en | de
105 Pakistan In force 25/11/1959 28/04/1962 Full text: en
106 Pakistan Signed (not in force) 01/12/2009 Full text: en
107 Panama In force 02/11/1983 10/03/1989 Full text: es
108 Papua New Guinea In force 12/11/1980 03/11/1983 Full text: en
109 Paraguay In force 11/08/1993 03/07/1998 Full text: es
110 Peru In force 30/01/1995 01/05/1997 Full text: es
111 Philippines In force 18/04/1997 01/02/2000 Full text: en
112 Poland In force 10/11/1989 24/02/1991 Full text: en
113 Portugal In force 16/09/1980 23/04/1982 Full text: de
114 Qatar In force 14/06/1996 19/01/1999 Full text: en
115 Romania Terminated 12/10/1979 10/01/1981 Full text: de | ro | en
116 Romania In force 25/06/1996 12/12/1998 Full text: de
117 Russian Federation In force 13/06/1989 05/08/1991 Full text: en | de | ru
118 Rwanda In force 18/05/1967 28/02/1969 Full text: fr | de
119 Saint Lucia In force 16/03/1985 22/07/1987 Full text: en
120 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines In force 25/03/1986 08/01/1989 Full text: en | de
121 Saudi Arabia In force 29/10/1996 08/01/1999 Full text: de | ar
122 Senegal In force 24/01/1964 16/01/1966 Full text: fr
123 Serbia In force 10/07/1989 25/10/1990 Full text: en | de
124 Sierra Leone In force 08/04/1965 10/12/1966 Full text: en | de
125 Singapore In force 03/10/1973 01/10/1975 Full text: en
126 Slovakia In force 02/10/1990 02/08/1992 Full text: cs
127 Slovenia In force 28/10/1993 18/07/1998 Full text: de
128 Somalia In force 27/11/1981 15/02/1985 Full text: en
129 South Africa Terminated 11/09/1995 10/04/1998 Full text: en | de
130 Sri Lanka Terminated 08/11/1963 07/12/1966 Full text: en
131 Sri Lanka In force 07/02/2000 16/01/2004 Full text: en
132 Sudan In force 07/02/1963 24/01/1967 Full text: en
133 Swaziland In force 05/04/1990 07/08/1995 Full text: en
134 Syrian Arab Republic In force 02/08/1977 20/04/1980 Full text: en | de
135 Tajikistan In force 27/03/2003 25/05/2006 Full text: de | ru
136 Tanzania, United Republic of In force 30/01/1965 12/07/1968 Full text: en | de
137 Thailand In force 24/06/2002 20/10/2004 Full text: en
138 Thailand Terminated 13/12/1961 10/04/1965 Full text: en | fr | de | th
139 Timor-Leste Signed (not in force) 10/08/2005
140 Togo In force 16/05/1961 21/12/1964 Full text: fr | de
141 Trinidad and Tobago In force 08/09/2006 17/04/2010 Full text: en | de
142 Tunisia In force 20/12/1963 06/02/1966 Full text: fr | de
143 Turkey In force 20/06/1962 16/12/1965 Full text: en
144 Turkmenistan In force 28/08/1997 19/02/2001 Full text: de
145 Uganda In force 29/11/1966 19/08/1968 Full text: en | de
146 Ukraine In force 15/02/1993 29/06/1996 Full text: de
147 United Arab Emirates In force 21/06/1997 02/07/1999 Full text: en | de
148 Uruguay In force 04/05/1987 29/06/1990 Full text: es
149 Uzbekistan In force 28/04/1993 23/05/1998 Full text: de | ru
150 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of In force 14/05/1996 16/10/1998 Full text: es | de
151 Viet Nam In force 03/04/1993 19/09/1998 Full text: de
152 Yemen Terminated 21/06/1974 19/12/1978 Full text: en
153 Yemen In force 02/03/2005 28/03/2008 Full text: en | de
154 Zambia In force 10/12/1966 25/08/1972 Full text: en | de
155 Zimbabwe In force 29/09/1995 14/04/2000 Full text: en