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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

India

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Argentina Terminated 20/08/1999 12/08/2002 Full text: es
2 Armenia In force 23/05/2003 30/05/2006 Full text: en
3 Australia Terminated 26/02/1999 04/05/2000 Full text: en
4 Austria Terminated 08/11/1999 01/03/2001 Full text: en
5 Bahrain In force 13/01/2004 05/12/2007 Full text: en
6 Bangladesh In force 09/02/2009 07/07/2011 Full text: en
7 Belarus In force 27/11/2002 23/11/2003 Full text: en
8 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 31/10/1997 08/01/2001 Full text: fr
9 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 12/09/2006 13/02/2008 Full text: en
10 Brunei Darussalam In force 22/05/2008 18/01/2009 Full text: en
11 Bulgaria In force 29/10/1998 23/09/1999 Full text: en
12 China In force 21/11/2006 01/08/2007 Full text: en
13 Colombia In force 10/11/2009 02/07/2012 Full text: en
14 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Signed (not in force) 13/04/2010 Full text: en
15 Croatia Terminated 04/05/2001 19/01/2002 Full text: en
16 Cyprus In force 09/04/2002 12/01/2004 Full text: en
17 Czech Republic Terminated 11/10/1996 06/02/1998 Full text: en
18 Denmark Terminated 06/09/1995 28/08/1996 Full text: en
19 Djibouti Signed (not in force) 19/05/2003 Full text: en
20 Egypt Terminated 09/04/1997 22/11/2000 Full text: en
21 Ethiopia Signed (not in force) 05/07/2007 Full text: en
22 Finland In force 07/11/2002 09/04/2003 Full text: en
23 France In force 02/09/1997 17/05/2000 Full text: fr
24 Germany Terminated 10/07/1995 13/07/1998 Full text: en
25 Ghana Signed (not in force) 05/08/2002 Full text: en
26 Greece In force 26/04/2007 10/04/2008 Full text: en
27 Hungary Terminated 03/11/2003 02/01/2006 Full text: en
28 Iceland In force 29/06/2007 16/12/2008 Full text: en
29 Indonesia Terminated 10/02/1999 22/01/2004 Full text: en
30 Israel In force 29/01/1996 18/02/1997 Full text: en
31 Italy Terminated 23/11/1995 26/03/1998 Full text: it | en
32 Jordan In force 30/11/2006 22/01/2009 Full text: en
33 Kazakhstan In force 09/12/1996 26/07/2001 Full text: en
34 Korea, Republic of In force 26/02/1996 07/05/1996 Full text: en
35 Kuwait In force 27/11/2001 28/06/2003 Full text: en
36 Kyrgyzstan In force 16/05/1997 12/05/2000 Full text: en
37 Lao People's Democratic Republic In force 09/11/2000 05/01/2003 Full text: en
38 Latvia In force 18/02/2010 27/11/2010 Full text: en
39 Libya In force 26/05/2007 23/03/2009 Full text: en
40 Lithuania In force 31/03/2011 01/12/2011 Full text: en
41 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 17/03/2008 17/11/2008 Full text: en
42 Malaysia Terminated 03/08/1995 12/04/1997 Full text: en
43 Mauritius In force 04/09/1998 20/06/2000 Full text: en
44 Mexico In force 21/05/2007 23/02/2008 Full text: en
45 Mongolia In force 03/01/2001 29/04/2002 Full text: en | hi | mn
46 Morocco In force 13/02/1999 22/02/2001 Full text: en
47 Mozambique In force 19/02/2009 23/09/2009 Full text: en
48 Myanmar In force 24/06/2008 08/02/2009 Full text: en
49 Nepal Signed (not in force) 21/10/2011 Full text: en
50 Netherlands Terminated 06/11/1995 01/12/1996 Full text: en
51 Oman Terminated 02/04/1997 13/10/2000 Full text: en
52 Philippines In force 28/01/2000 29/01/2001 Full text: en
53 Poland In force 07/10/1996 31/12/1997 Full text: en
54 Portugal In force 28/06/2000 19/07/2002 Full text: en | pt
55 Qatar In force 07/04/1999 15/12/1999 Full text: en
56 Romania In force 17/11/1997 09/12/1999 Full text: en
57 Russian Federation Terminated 23/12/1994 05/08/1996 Full text: en | ru
58 Saudi Arabia In force 25/01/2006 20/05/2008 Full text: en
59 Senegal In force 03/07/2008 17/10/2009 Full text: en
60 Serbia In force 31/01/2003 24/02/2009 Full text: en
61 Seychelles Signed (not in force) 02/06/2010 Full text: en
62 Slovakia In force 25/09/2006 27/09/2007 Full text: en
63 Slovenia Signed (not in force) 14/06/2011 Full text: en
64 Spain Terminated 30/09/1997 15/12/1998 Full text: es
65 Sri Lanka In force 22/01/1997 13/02/1998 Full text: en
66 Sudan In force 22/10/2003 18/10/2010 Full text: en
67 Sweden In force 04/07/2000 01/04/2001 Full text: en
68 Switzerland Terminated 04/04/1997 16/02/2000 Full text: en | fr
69 Syrian Arab Republic In force 18/06/2008 22/01/2009 Full text: en
70 Taiwan Province of China In force 17/10/2002 28/11/2002 Full text: en
71 Tajikistan In force 13/12/1995 14/11/2003 Full text: en
72 Thailand In force 10/07/2000 13/07/2001 Full text: en
73 Trinidad and Tobago In force 12/03/2007 07/10/2007 Full text: en
74 Turkey In force 17/09/1998 18/10/2007 Full text: en
75 Turkmenistan In force 20/09/1995 27/02/2006 Full text: en
76 Ukraine In force 01/12/2001 12/08/2003 Full text: en
77 United Arab Emirates In force 12/12/2013 21/08/2014 Full text: en
78 United Kingdom In force 14/03/1994 06/01/1995 Full text: en
79 Uruguay Signed (not in force) 11/02/2008 Full text: es
80 Uzbekistan In force 18/05/1999 28/07/2000 Full text: en
81 Viet Nam In force 08/03/1997 01/12/1999 Full text: en
82 Yemen In force 01/10/2002 10/02/2004 Full text: en
83 Zimbabwe Signed (not in force) 10/02/1999 Full text: en