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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200

Iran, Islamic Republic of

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Afghanistan In force 28/05/2006 02/02/2008
2 Albania Signed (not in force) 18/11/2002
3 Algeria In force 19/10/2003 05/12/2005 Full text: fr
4 Armenia In force 06/05/1995 26/02/1997
5 Austria Terminated 21/09/1999
6 Austria In force 15/02/2001 11/07/2004 Full text: en
7 Azerbaijan In force 28/10/1996 20/06/2002
8 Bahrain In force 19/10/2002 12/10/2004
9 Bangladesh In force 29/04/2001 05/12/2002 Full text: en
10 Belarus In force 14/07/1995 23/06/2000 Full text: en
11 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 27/07/1996 02/06/2009 Full text: en
12 Bulgaria In force 13/11/1998 24/08/2003
13 China In force 06/2000 01/07/2005 Full text: en
14 Croatia In force 17/05/2000 20/07/2005 Full text: en
15 Cyprus In force 02/03/2009 04/05/2012 Full text: en | el | fa
16 Djibouti Signed (not in force) 07/12/2010
17 Egypt Signed (not in force) 25/05/1977 Full text: ar
18 Ethiopia In force 21/10/2003 15/12/2004 Full text: en
19 Finland In force 04/11/2002 25/06/2004 Full text: en
20 France In force 12/05/2003 12/11/2004 Full text: fr
21 Gambia Signed (not in force) 20/06/2007
22 Georgia In force 27/09/1995 22/06/2005 Full text: en
23 Germany Terminated 11/11/1965 06/05/1968 Full text: en
24 Germany In force 17/08/2002 23/06/2005 Full text: en
25 Greece In force 13/03/2002 09/01/2009 Full text: en
26 Indonesia In force 22/06/2005 28/03/2009
27 Italy In force 10/03/1999 08/08/2003 Full text: en | it
28 Japan In force 05/02/2016 26/04/2017 Full text: en
29 Kazakhstan In force 16/01/1996 03/04/1999 Full text: en
30 Kenya Signed (not in force) 24/02/2009 Full text: en
31 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of In force 30/09/2002 24/04/2005
32 Korea, Republic of In force 31/10/1998 31/03/2006 Full text: en
33 Kuwait In force 13/02/2006 14/03/2011
34 Kyrgyzstan In force 31/07/1996 27/06/2005 Full text: ru
35 Lebanon In force 28/10/1997 14/05/2000 Full text: en
36 Libya In force 27/12/2006 05/05/2010
37 Luxembourg Signed (not in force) 14/02/2017
38 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 12/07/2000 10/07/2013 Full text: en
39 Malaysia In force 22/07/2002 05/08/2006
40 Moldova, Republic of Signed (not in force) 30/05/1995
41 Morocco In force 21/01/2001 31/03/2003 Full text: ar
42 Oman In force 02/12/2001 08/04/2003 Full text: en | ar
43 Pakistan In force 08/11/1995 27/06/1998 Full text: en
44 Philippines Signed (not in force) 08/10/1995
45 Poland In force 02/10/1998 26/10/2001
46 Qatar In force 20/05/1999 05/11/2001
47 Romania In force 26/01/2003 12/01/2005
48 Russian Federation In force 23/12/2015 06/04/2017 Full text: ru
49 Serbia In force 05/12/2003 07/07/2006 Full text: sr
50 Singapore Signed (not in force) 26/02/2016
51 Slovakia In force 19/01/2016 30/08/2017 Full text: en
52 South Africa Signed (not in force) 03/11/1997 Full text: en
53 Spain In force 29/10/2002 13/07/2004 Full text: en
54 Sri Lanka Signed (not in force) 25/07/2000 Full text: en
55 Sudan In force 07/09/1999 19/10/2001
56 Sweden In force 05/12/2005 01/02/2008
57 Switzerland In force 08/03/1998 01/11/2001 Full text: en
58 Syrian Arab Republic In force 05/02/1998 16/11/2005
59 Tajikistan In force 18/07/1995 03/11/2004
60 Tunisia In force 23/04/2001 27/02/2003 Full text: en
61 Turkey In force 21/12/1996 13/04/2005 Full text: en
62 Turkmenistan In force 23/01/1996 29/04/2004
63 Ukraine In force 21/05/1996 05/07/2003
64 Uzbekistan In force 11/06/2000 11/07/2004
65 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of In force 11/03/2005 07/06/2006 Full text: es
66 Viet Nam Signed (not in force) 23/03/2009
67 Yemen In force 29/02/1996 16/10/2000
68 Zimbabwe Terminated 21/09/1996
69 Zimbabwe In force 09/05/1999 26/01/2015