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International Investment Agreements Navigator

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terminology

About

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 202
No. Name Total BITs * Total TIPs *
1 Afghanistan 3 (3 in force) 5 (4 in force)
2 Albania 43 (35 in force) 7 (7 in force)
3 Algeria 48 (28 in force) 8 (6 in force)
4 Andorra 0 0
5 Angola 10 (4 in force) 8 (5 in force)
6 Anguilla 0 1 (1 in force)
7 Antigua and Barbuda 2 (2 in force) 9 (7 in force)
8 Argentina 56 (52 in force) 16 (12 in force)
9 Armenia 42 (35 in force) 6 (5 in force)
10 Aruba 0 1 (1 in force)
11 Australia 21 (21 in force) 18 (17 in force)
12 Austria 63 (59 in force) 67 (54 in force)
13 Azerbaijan 47 (34 in force) 4 (3 in force)
14 Bahamas 1 (0 in force) 9 (7 in force)
15 Bahrain 31 (24 in force) 14 (9 in force)
16 Bangladesh 28 (23 in force) 4 (3 in force)
17 Barbados 10 (9 in force) 9 (7 in force)
18 Belarus 62 (50 in force) 8 (6 in force)
19 Belgium 95 (74 in force) 67 (54 in force)
20 Belize 7 (4 in force) 9 (7 in force)
21 Benin 17 (6 in force) 10 (8 in force)
22 Bermuda 0 1 (1 in force)
23 Bhutan 0 2 (2 in force)
24 Bolivia, Plurinational State of 13 (12 in force) 11 (7 in force)
25 Bosnia and Herzegovina 38 (38 in force) 5 (3 in force)
26 Botswana 9 (2 in force) 8 (6 in force)
27 Brazil 20 (0 in force) 17 (13 in force)
28 British Virgin Islands 0 1 (1 in force)
29 Brunei Darussalam 8 (5 in force) 19 (15 in force)
30 Bulgaria 67 (58 in force) 67 (54 in force)
31 Burkina Faso 16 (8 in force) 10 (8 in force)
32 Burundi 7 (5 in force) 9 (8 in force)
33 Cabo Verde 8 (7 in force) 7 (5 in force)
34 Cambodia 23 (12 in force) 16 (13 in force)
35 Cameroon 18 (9 in force) 7 (6 in force)
36 Canada 39 (33 in force) 20 (17 in force)
37 Cayman Islands 0 1 (1 in force)
38 Central African Republic 4 (2 in force) 5 (5 in force)
39 Chad 13 (3 in force) 6 (6 in force)
40 Channel Islands 0 0
41 Chile 51 (37 in force) 29 (25 in force)
42 China 129 (110 in force) 20 (18 in force)
43 Christmas Island 0 0
44 Cocos (Keeling) Islands 0 0
45 Colombia 16 (6 in force) 19 (14 in force)
46 Comoros 6 (1 in force) 10 (9 in force)
47 Congo 14 (8 in force) 5 (5 in force)
48 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 16 (4 in force) 11 (8 in force)
49 Cook Islands 0 2 (2 in force)
50 Costa Rica 21 (14 in force) 17 (13 in force)
51 Côte d'Ivoire 13 (7 in force) 11 (8 in force)
52 Croatia 58 (49 in force) 67 (54 in force)
53 Cuba 59 (40 in force) 3 (3 in force)
54 Curaçao 0 0
55 Cyprus 28 (26 in force) 67 (54 in force)
56 Czech Republic 80 (77 in force) 67 (54 in force)
57 Denmark 55 (48 in force) 67 (54 in force)
58 Djibouti 9 (3 in force) 10 (9 in force)
59 Dominica 2 (2 in force) 9 (7 in force)
60 Dominican Republic 14 (11 in force) 5 (3 in force)
61 Ecuador 18 (16 in force) 9 (7 in force)
62 Egypt 100 (73 in force) 13 (11 in force)
63 El Salvador 21 (18 in force) 9 (7 in force)
64 Equatorial Guinea 9 (4 in force) 5 (5 in force)
65 Eritrea 4 (1 in force) 6 (5 in force)
66 Estonia 28 (24 in force) 68 (55 in force)
67 Ethiopia 30 (21 in force) 6 (5 in force)
68 Faeroe Islands 0 0
69 Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 0 1 (1 in force)
70 Fiji 0 3 (3 in force)
71 Finland 72 (66 in force) 67 (54 in force)
72 France 104 (96 in force) 67 (54 in force)
73 French Guiana 0 0
74 French Polynesia 0 1 (1 in force)
75 Gabon 15 (7 in force) 7 (7 in force)
76 Gambia 15 (6 in force) 8 (6 in force)
77 Georgia 32 (30 in force) 5 (4 in force)
78 Germany 135 (132 in force) 67 (54 in force)
79 Ghana 27 (8 in force) 8 (6 in force)
80 Gibraltar 0 0
81 Greece 45 (40 in force) 67 (54 in force)
82 Greenland 0 1 (1 in force)
83 Grenada 2 (2 in force) 9 (7 in force)
84 Guadeloupe 0 0
85 Guam 0 0
86 Guatemala 21 (17 in force) 11 (8 in force)
87 Guinea 23 (6 in force) 8 (6 in force)
88 Guinea-Bissau 2 (1 in force) 9 (7 in force)
89 Guyana 8 (4 in force) 10 (8 in force)
90 Haiti 8 (3 in force) 9 (7 in force)
91 Holy See 0 0
92 Honduras 11 (9 in force) 11 (8 in force)
93 Hong Kong, China SAR 19 (18 in force) 4 (4 in force)
94 Hungary 58 (55 in force) 67 (54 in force)
95 Iceland 9 (8 in force) 31 (26 in force)
96 India 81 (71 in force) 13 (9 in force)
97 Indonesia 44 (28 in force) 16 (13 in force)
98 Iran, Islamic Republic of 66 (52 in force) 2 (1 in force)
99 Iraq 7 (2 in force) 6 (4 in force)
100 Ireland 0 67 (54 in force)
101 Isle of Man 0 0
102 Israel 39 (34 in force) 5 (4 in force)
103 Italy 88 (76 in force) 66 (53 in force)
104 Jamaica 17 (11 in force) 9 (7 in force)
105 Japan 29 (21 in force) 20 (17 in force)
106 Jordan 54 (42 in force) 9 (9 in force)
107 Kazakhstan 47 (36 in force) 11 (9 in force)
108 Kenya 17 (6 in force) 7 (6 in force)
109 Kiribati 0 2 (2 in force)
110 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of 24 (14 in force) 0
111 Korea, Republic of 93 (85 in force) 19 (17 in force)
112 Kuwait 76 (50 in force) 13 (7 in force)
113 Kyrgyzstan 34 (23 in force) 9 (7 in force)
114 Lao People's Democratic Republic 23 (20 in force) 17 (13 in force)
115 Latvia 44 (44 in force) 67 (54 in force)
116 Lebanon 50 (41 in force) 8 (6 in force)
117 Lesotho 3 (3 in force) 8 (6 in force)
118 Liberia 4 (3 in force) 8 (6 in force)
119 Libya 37 (24 in force) 10 (7 in force)
120 Liechtenstein 0 1 (1 in force)
121 Lithuania 54 (53 in force) 67 (54 in force)
122 Luxembourg 96 (73 in force) 67 (54 in force)
123 Macao, China SAR 2 (2 in force) 3 (2 in force)
124 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of 40 (34 in force) 5 (5 in force)
125 Madagascar 9 (8 in force) 5 (4 in force)
126 Malawi 7 (3 in force) 10 (7 in force)
127 Malaysia 68 (49 in force) 24 (19 in force)
128 Maldives 0 3 (3 in force)
129 Mali 19 (8 in force) 9 (7 in force)
130 Malta 22 (21 in force) 67 (54 in force)
131 Marshall Islands 1 (0 in force) 2 (2 in force)
132 Martinique 0 0
133 Mauritania 20 (8 in force) 7 (6 in force)
134 Mauritius 43 (26 in force) 11 (8 in force)
135 Mayotte 0 1 (1 in force)
136 Mexico 33 (30 in force) 17 (15 in force)
137 Micronesia, Federated States of 0 2 (2 in force)
138 Moldova, Republic of 41 (39 in force) 4 (4 in force)
139 Monaco 0 0
140 Mongolia 44 (37 in force) 4 (3 in force)
141 Montenegro 29 (25 in force) 6 (6 in force)
142 Montserrat 0 9 (7 in force)
143 Morocco 68 (49 in force) 9 (8 in force)
144 Mozambique 27 (21 in force) 8 (6 in force)
145 Myanmar 9 (6 in force) 16 (12 in force)
146 Namibia 14 (8 in force) 8 (6 in force)
147 Nauru 0 2 (2 in force)
148 Nepal 6 (4 in force) 3 (3 in force)
149 Netherlands 94 (90 in force) 67 (54 in force)
150 New Caledonia 0 1 (1 in force)
151 New Zealand 4 (2 in force) 14 (13 in force)
152 Nicaragua 17 (13 in force) 11 (9 in force)
153 Niger 5 (2 in force) 10 (8 in force)
154 Nigeria 28 (15 in force) 9 (7 in force)
155 Niue 0 2 (2 in force)
156 Norfolk Island 0 0
157 Northern Mariana Islands 0 0
158 Norway 15 (14 in force) 29 (25 in force)
159 Occupied Palestinian territory 3 (2 in force) 7 (7 in force)
160 Oman 35 (25 in force) 13 (8 in force)
161 Pakistan 45 (28 in force) 7 (6 in force)
162 Palau 0 1 (1 in force)
163 Panama 24 (20 in force) 11 (8 in force)
164 Papua New Guinea 6 (5 in force) 3 (3 in force)
165 Paraguay 24 (23 in force) 16 (12 in force)
166 Peru 29 (29 in force) 28 (20 in force)
167 Philippines 37 (31 in force) 15 (12 in force)
168 Pitcairn 0 0
169 Poland 62 (60 in force) 67 (54 in force)
170 Portugal 55 (45 in force) 67 (54 in force)
171 Puerto Rico 0 0
172 Qatar 53 (22 in force) 13 (7 in force)
173 Réunion 0 0
174 Romania 82 (79 in force) 67 (54 in force)
175 Russian Federation 80 (64 in force) 6 (5 in force)
176 Rwanda 8 (4 in force) 11 (10 in force)
177 Saint Helena 0 1 (1 in force)
178 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0 9 (7 in force)
179 Saint Lucia 2 (2 in force) 9 (7 in force)
180 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0 1 (1 in force)
181 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2 (2 in force) 9 (7 in force)
182 Samoa 0 2 (2 in force)
183 San Marino 10 (5 in force) 0
184 Sao Tome and Principe 1 (0 in force) 3 (3 in force)
185 Saudi Arabia 23 (17 in force) 13 (8 in force)
186 Senegal 27 (16 in force) 10 (8 in force)
187 Serbia 52 (49 in force) 4 (4 in force)
188 Seychelles 5 (2 in force) 10 (7 in force)
189 Sierra Leone 3 (2 in force) 8 (6 in force)
190 Singapore 44 (36 in force) 30 (25 in force)
191 Slovakia 56 (48 in force) 67 (54 in force)
192 Slovenia 37 (34 in force) 67 (54 in force)
193 Solomon Islands 0 2 (2 in force)
194 Somalia 3 (2 in force) 5 (5 in force)
195 South Africa 40 (15 in force) 11 (8 in force)
196 South Sudan 0 1 (1 in force)
197 Spain 78 (69 in force) 67 (54 in force)
198 Sri Lanka 28 (24 in force) 5 (4 in force)
199 Sudan 29 (14 in force) 10 (9 in force)
200 Suriname 3 (1 in force) 10 (8 in force)
201 Swaziland 6 (2 in force) 11 (8 in force)
202 Sweden 69 (66 in force) 67 (54 in force)
203 Switzerland 114 (112 in force) 34 (30 in force)
204 Syrian Arab Republic 42 (34 in force) 5 (5 in force)
205 Taiwan Province of China 23 (16 in force) 5 (5 in force)
206 Tajikistan 35 (22 in force) 7 (5 in force)
207 Tanzania, United Republic of 19 (11 in force) 8 (6 in force)
208 Thailand 39 (36 in force) 23 (19 in force)
209 Timor-Leste 3 (1 in force) 1 (1 in force)
210 Togo 4 (2 in force) 10 (8 in force)
211 Tokelau 0 0
212 Tonga 1 (1 in force) 2 (2 in force)
213 Trinidad and Tobago 13 (12 in force) 9 (7 in force)
214 Tunisia 54 (34 in force) 9 (8 in force)
215 Turkey 99 (75 in force) 21 (16 in force)
216 Turkmenistan 27 (19 in force) 7 (5 in force)
217 Turks and Caicos Islands 0 1 (1 in force)
218 Tuvalu 0 2 (2 in force)
219 Uganda 15 (7 in force) 8 (7 in force)
220 Ukraine 73 (56 in force) 6 (5 in force)
221 United Arab Emirates 51 (34 in force) 13 (7 in force)
222 United Kingdom 106 (96 in force) 67 (54 in force)
223 United States of America 46 (40 in force) 68 (50 in force)
224 United States Virgin Islands 0 0
225 Uruguay 31 (29 in force) 18 (14 in force)
226 Uzbekistan 50 (47 in force) 5 (4 in force)
227 Vanuatu 2 (0 in force) 2 (2 in force)
228 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of 28 (27 in force) 5 (5 in force)
229 Viet Nam 61 (45 in force) 22 (17 in force)
230 Wallis and Futuna Islands 0 1 (1 in force)
231 Yemen 37 (23 in force) 6 (6 in force)
232 Zambia 13 (5 in force) 9 (6 in force)
233 Zimbabwe 31 (8 in force) 9 (6 in force)

* Stated number of BITs/TIPs does not include treaties that have been denounced, terminated by mutual consent or renegotiated.