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Canada - Egypt BIT (1996)

Treaty type:
Bilateral Investment Treaties
In force
Date of signature:
Date of entry into force:
Treaty full text:
en | fr
IIA content:

Mapped treaty elements

Reference to right to regulate (e.g. regulatory autonomy, policy space, flexibility to introduce new regulations) No
Reference to sustainable development No
Reference to social investment aspects (e.g. human rights, labour, health, CSR, poverty reduction) No
Reference to environmental aspects (e.g. plant or animal life, biodiversity, climate change) No
Definition of investment
Type of definition Asset-based definition
Limitations to the definition of investment
Excludes portfolio investment No
Excludes other specific assets (e.g. sovereign debt, ordinary commercial transactions, etc.) Yes
Lists required characteristics of investment No
Contains "in accordance with host State laws" requirement Yes
Sets out closed (exhaustive) list of covered assets No

Definition of investor
Definition included Yes
Specifying natural persons covered
Includes permanent residents Yes
Excludes dual nationals No
Specifying legal entities covered
Includes requirement of substantial business activity No
Defines ownership and control of legal entities No

Denial of benefits (DoB)
DoB clause included No
Content of the DoB clause
"Substantive business operations" criterion Not applicable
Applies to investors from States with no diplomatic relations or under economic/trade restrictions Not applicable
Discretionary ("Party may deny") or mandatory ("benefits shall be denied") Not applicable

Substantive scope of the treaty
Limiting substantive scope of the treaty
Excludes taxation Yes
Excludes subsidies, grants Yes
Excludes government procurement Yes
Excludes other subject matter Yes

Temporal scope of the treaty
Investments covered Applies to both pre-existing and post-BIT investments
Disputes covered Not stipulated

National treatment (NT)
Type of NT clause Pre- and post-establishment
Reference to "like circumstances" (or similar) Yes

Most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment
Type of MFN clause Pre- and post-establishment
Exceptions from MFN obligation
Economic integration agreements Yes
Taxation treaties Yes
Procedural issues (ISDS) No

Fair and equitable treatment (FET)
Type of FET clause FET qualified
FET qualified
By reference to international law International law / principles of international law
By listing FET elements (exhaustive or indicative list) No
FET modifiers None

Full protection and security Standard
Prohibition on unreasonable, arbitrary or discriminatory measures No
Scope of measures covered Indirect expropriation mentioned
Refining expropriation clause
Indirect expropriation defined No
Carve-out for general regulatory measures No
Carve-out for compulsory licenses in conformity with WTO Yes

Protection from strife
Relative right to compensation (comparator) MFN and NT
Absolute right to compensation in certain circumstances No

Transfer of funds
Includes transfer of funds Yes
Exceptions to the transfer of funds obligation
Balance-of-payments exception No
Other specific exceptions (e.g. to protect creditors, etc.) Yes

Prohibition of performance requirements (PRs)
Includes prohibition of PRs Explicit PR clause
Type of PR clause List of prohibited PRs

Umbrella clause No
Entry and sojourn of personnel (subject to local laws) Yes
Senior management (nationality) Yes
Directed at States (obligation to publish laws and regulations) Yes
Directed at investors No

Health and environment (any mentioning in the text, except preamble) Yes
Labour standards (any mentioning in the text, except preamble) No
Right to regulate (any mentioning in the text of this or similar concepts, except preamble) Yes
Corporate social responsibility (any mentioning in the text, except preamble) No
Corruption (any mentioning in the text, except preamble) No
Not lowering of standards (typically environment and/or labour standards) No
Subrogation clause Yes
Non-derogation clause (in case of IIA’s conflict with other norms, more favourable rules apply to investors) No
Investment promotion
Reference to specific promotion activities in text of agreement (not preamble) No

Essential security exception
Exception included No
Exception defined (exceptional circumstances described in more detail) Not applicable
Exception self-judging Not applicable

General public policy exceptions
Public health and environment Yes
Other public policy exceptions (e.g. cultural heritage, public order, etc.) No

Prudential carve-out (concerns financial measures) Yes
Scheduling and reservations (in treaty texts and annexes) Negative-list reservations
ISDS included Yes
Alternatives to arbitration None
Scope and consent
Scope of claims: general approach (chapeau paragraph of ISDS clause) Covers treaty claims only
Limitations to the scope of ISDS
Limitation of provisions subject to ISDS No
Exclusion of policy areas from ISDS No
Special mechanism for taxation or prudential measures Yes
Type of consent to arbitration Provides express or implied consent

ISDS forum options
Domestic courts of the host State Yes
Other forums No
Relationship between forums "No U turn" (waiver clause)

Other specific ISDS features
Limitation period for submission of claims Yes
Provisional measures Yes
Consolidation of claims No
Limited remedies (specifying available types of remedies) Yes
Treaty interpretation
Affirms binding interpretation by contracting parties or their joint committee Yes
Requires certain questions to be submitted to contracting parties (renvoi) Yes
Regulates submissions by non-disputing State party No
Transparency in arbitral proceedings
Requires documents to be made publicly available No
Requires hearings to be open to the public No
Regulates amicus curiae submissions by third (non-disputing) parties No

Mechanism for consultations between State parties Yes
Institutional framework (committee) No
Technical cooperation/capacity building No
Treaty duration
Years of initial treaty term 15 years

Automatic renewal Indefinite term
Amendment and termination
Unilateral termination
Includes modalities for unilateral termination Yes
Length of notice period One year prior notice
Includes modalities for amendment or renegotiation Yes
"Survival"/"sunset" clause length 15 years

Originally mapped:
Mapped by:
University of Ottawa (Canada); University of Michigan Law School (United States)