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International Investment Agreements Navigator



UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.


International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.

In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.

Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 202


No. Partners Status Date of
Date of
entry into force
1 Albania In force 12/09/1991 29/01/1996 Full text: it
2 Algeria In force 18/05/1991 26/11/1993 Full text: it
3 Angola In force 10/07/1997 21/05/2007 Full text: it
4 Argentina In force 22/05/1990 14/10/1993 Full text: it
5 Armenia In force 23/07/1998 13/01/2003 Full text: en | it
6 Azerbaijan Terminated 25/09/1997 04/02/2000 Full text: en | it
7 Bahrain In force 29/10/2006 28/06/2009 Full text: en | it
8 Bangladesh In force 20/03/1990 20/09/1994 Full text: en
9 Barbados In force 25/10/1995 21/07/1997 Full text: it
10 Belarus In force 25/07/1995 12/08/1997 Full text: en
11 Belize Signed (not in force) 23/11/2005
12 Bolivia, Plurinational State of In force 30/04/1990 22/02/1992 Full text: it
13 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 19/05/2000 10/02/2005 Full text: en
14 Brazil Signed (not in force) 03/04/1995 Full text: pt
15 Bulgaria Terminated 05/12/1988 27/12/1990 Full text: it
16 Cabo Verde Signed (not in force) 12/06/1997
17 Cameroon In force 29/06/1999 04/01/2004 Full text: it
18 Chad In force 11/06/1969 11/06/1969 Full text: it
19 Chile In force 08/03/1993 08/02/1995 Full text: es
20 China In force 28/01/1985 28/08/1987 Full text: en
21 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Signed (not in force) 13/09/2006 Full text: fr
22 Congo In force 17/03/1994 10/01/2003 Full text: fr
23 Côte d'Ivoire Signed (not in force) 23/07/1969
24 Croatia Terminated 05/11/1996 12/06/1998 Full text: it
25 Cuba In force 07/05/1993 23/08/1995 Full text: it
26 Czech Republic Terminated 22/01/1996 01/11/1997 Full text: en | it
27 Djibouti In force 08/02/2006 08/02/2006
28 Dominican Republic In force 12/06/2006 25/11/2009 Full text: en | it
29 Ecuador In force 25/10/2001 01/02/2005 Full text: en | it
30 Egypt In force 02/03/1989 01/05/1994 Full text: en | it
31 Eritrea In force 06/02/1996 14/07/2003 Full text: en | it
32 Estonia Terminated 20/03/1997 09/05/2000
33 Ethiopia In force 23/12/1994 08/05/1997 Full text: it
34 Gabon Terminated 18/11/1968 Full text: it
35 Gabon In force 18/06/1999 07/07/2006 Full text: it
36 Georgia Terminated 15/05/1997 26/07/1999 Full text: en | it
37 Ghana Signed (not in force) 25/06/1998
38 Guatemala In force 08/09/2003 03/03/2008 Full text: es
39 Guinea In force 20/02/1964 20/02/1964 Full text: fr
40 Hong Kong, China SAR In force 28/11/1995 02/02/1998 Full text: en
41 Hungary Terminated 17/02/1987 06/09/1989 Full text: it
42 India Terminated 23/11/1995 26/03/1998 Full text: it | en
43 Indonesia Terminated 25/04/1991 25/06/1995 Full text: it
44 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 10/03/1999 08/08/2003 Full text: en | it
45 Jamaica In force 29/09/1993 09/11/1995 Full text: it
46 Jordan In force 21/07/1996 17/01/2000 Full text: ar | en | it
47 Kazakhstan In force 22/09/1994 12/07/1996 Full text: en | it
48 Kenya In force 16/09/1996 04/08/1999 Full text: en | it
49 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of Signed (not in force) 27/09/2000
50 Korea, Republic of In force 10/01/1989 26/06/1992 Full text: en | it
51 Kuwait In force 17/12/1987 21/05/1990 Full text: en | it
52 Latvia Terminated 21/05/1997 02/03/1999
53 Lebanon In force 07/11/1997 09/02/2000 Full text: en
54 Libya In force 13/12/2000 20/10/2004 Full text: it
55 Lithuania Terminated 01/12/1994 15/04/1997 Full text: it
56 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 26/02/1997 28/05/1999 Full text: en | it
57 Malawi In force 28/08/2003 21/03/2012 Full text: it
58 Malaysia In force 04/01/1988 25/10/1990 Full text: it
59 Malta In force 28/07/1967 15/10/1973 Full text: it | en
60 Malta Signed (not in force) 20/12/2002
61 Mauritania In force 05/04/2003 09/12/2009 Full text: fr
62 Mexico In force 24/11/1999 05/12/2002 Full text: en
63 Moldova, Republic of In force 19/09/1997 26/08/2001 Full text: it | en
64 Mongolia In force 15/01/1993 01/09/1995 Full text: en
65 Morocco In force 18/07/1990 26/04/2000 Full text: fr | it
66 Mozambique In force 14/12/1998 17/11/2003 Full text: en | it
67 Namibia In force 09/07/2004 30/05/2006 Full text: it
68 Nicaragua In force 20/04/2004 22/05/2006 Full text: es | en
69 Nigeria In force 27/09/2000 22/08/2005 Full text: en | it
70 Oman In force 23/06/1993 23/01/1997 Full text: it | en | ar
71 Pakistan In force 19/07/1997 22/06/2001 Full text: en
72 Panama In force 06/02/2009 12/10/2010 Full text: it
73 Paraguay In force 15/07/1999 30/06/2013 Full text: it | es
74 Peru In force 05/05/1994 18/10/1995 Full text: es | it
75 Philippines In force 17/06/1988 04/11/1993 Full text: en | it
76 Poland Terminated 10/05/1989 09/01/1993 Full text: it
77 Qatar In force 22/03/2000 08/01/2004 Full text: en | it
78 Romania Terminated 06/12/1990 14/03/1995 Full text: it
79 Russian Federation In force 09/04/1996 07/07/1997 Full text: it | ru
80 Saudi Arabia In force 10/09/1996 22/05/1998 Full text: it
81 Senegal In force 13/10/2000 16/12/2008 Full text: it
82 Serbia Signed (not in force) 11/12/2000 Full text: sr
83 Slovakia Terminated 30/07/1998 22/11/2000 Full text: en
84 Slovenia Terminated 08/03/2000 11/08/2003
85 South Africa In force 09/06/1997 16/03/1999 Full text: it
86 Sri Lanka In force 25/03/1987 20/03/1990 Full text: it
87 Sudan Signed (not in force) 19/11/2005
88 Syrian Arab Republic In force 20/02/2002 13/11/2003 Full text: en | it
89 Tanzania, United Republic of In force 21/08/2001 25/04/2003 Full text: en
90 Tunisia In force 17/10/1985 24/06/1989 Full text: fr
91 Turkey In force 22/03/1995 02/03/2004 Full text: en
92 Turkmenistan Signed (not in force) 25/11/2009
93 Uganda Terminated 12/12/1997 24/09/1999 Full text: it
94 Ukraine Terminated 02/05/1995 12/09/1997
95 United Arab Emirates In force 22/01/1995 29/04/1997 Full text: en | it
96 Uruguay In force 21/02/1990 02/03/1998 Full text: it
97 Uzbekistan Terminated 17/09/1997 14/10/1999 Full text: en | it
98 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Signed (not in force) 04/06/1990 Full text: es
99 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Signed (not in force) 14/02/2001
100 Viet Nam In force 18/05/1990 06/05/1994 Full text: fr
101 Yemen In force 25/11/2004 03/05/2008 Full text: en | it
102 Zambia In force 30/04/2003 02/12/2014 Full text: it
103 Zimbabwe Signed (not in force) 16/04/1999