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International Investment Agreements Navigator



UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.


International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.

In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.

Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 201


No. Partners Status Date of
Date of
entry into force
1 Albania In force 18/03/1993 01/08/1995 Full text: de
2 Algeria In force 17/06/2003 01/01/2006 Full text: de | fr
3 Argentina In force 07/08/1992 01/01/1995 Full text: de
4 Armenia In force 17/10/2001 01/02/2003 Full text: en
5 Azerbaijan In force 04/07/2000 28/05/2001 Full text: de | en
6 Bangladesh In force 21/12/2000 01/12/2001 Full text: en
7 Belarus In force 16/05/2001 01/06/2002 Full text: en
8 Belize In force 17/07/2001 01/02/2002 Full text: en
9 Bolivia, Plurinational State of Terminated 04/04/1997 01/07/2002 Full text: en
10 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 02/10/2000 20/10/2002 Full text: en
11 Bulgaria In force 22/01/1997 01/11/1997 Full text: de | en
12 Cabo Verde Terminated 03/09/1991 01/04/1993 Full text: en | de
13 Cambodia Signed (not in force) 17/12/2004
14 Chile In force 08/09/1997 22/10/2000 Full text: en
15 China In force 12/09/1985 11/10/1986 Full text: de
16 Croatia In force 19/02/1997 01/11/1999 Full text: en
17 Cuba In force 19/05/2000 25/11/2001 Full text: de | es | en
18 Czech Republic In force 15/10/1990 01/10/1991 Full text: de
19 Egypt In force 12/04/2001 29/04/2002 Full text: en | de | ar
20 Estonia In force 16/05/1994 01/10/1995 Full text: de
21 Ethiopia In force 12/11/2004 01/11/2005 Full text: en
22 Georgia In force 01/10/2001 01/03/2004 Full text: en
23 Guatemala In force 16/01/2006 01/12/2012 Full text: es | en
24 Hong Kong, China SAR In force 11/10/1996 01/10/1997 Full text: en
25 Hungary In force 26/05/1988 01/09/1989 Full text: de
26 India Terminated 08/11/1999 01/03/2001 Full text: en
27 Iran, Islamic Republic of Terminated 21/09/1999
28 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 15/02/2001 11/07/2004 Full text: en
29 Jordan In force 23/01/2001 25/11/2001 Full text: en
30 Kazakhstan In force 12/01/2010 21/12/2012 Full text: en
31 Korea, Republic of In force 14/03/1991 01/11/1991 Full text: en
32 Kuwait In force 16/11/1996 22/09/1998 Full text: de | en
33 Kyrgyzstan Signed (not in force) 22/04/2016 Full text: ru | en
34 Latvia In force 17/11/1994 01/05/1996 Full text: de
35 Lebanon In force 26/05/2001 30/09/2002 Full text: en
36 Libya In force 18/06/2002 01/01/2004 Full text: en
37 Lithuania In force 28/06/1996 01/07/1997 Full text: de | en
38 Malaysia In force 12/04/1985 01/01/1987 Full text: en | de
39 Malta In force 29/05/2002 01/03/2004 Full text: en
40 Mexico In force 29/06/1998 26/03/2001 Full text: en
41 Moldova, Republic of In force 05/06/2001 01/08/2002 Full text: de
42 Mongolia In force 19/05/2001 01/05/2002 Full text: en | mn | de
43 Montenegro In force 12/10/2001 01/08/2002 Full text: en
44 Morocco In force 02/11/1992 01/07/1995 Full text: fr | de
45 Namibia In force 27/05/2003 01/09/2008 Full text: en
46 Nigeria Signed (not in force) 08/04/2013 Full text: en
47 North Macedonia In force 28/03/2001 14/04/2002 Full text: en
48 Oman In force 01/04/2001 01/02/2003 Full text: en | ar
49 Paraguay In force 13/08/1993 01/01/2000 Full text: de | es
50 Philippines In force 11/04/2002 01/12/2003 Full text: en
51 Poland In force 24/11/1988 01/11/1989 Full text: de
52 Romania In force 15/05/1996 01/07/1997 Full text: de
53 Russian Federation In force 08/02/1990 01/09/1991 Full text: de | ru
54 Saudi Arabia In force 30/06/2001 25/07/2003 Full text: en
55 Serbia Terminated 25/10/1989 01/06/1991
56 Serbia In force 12/10/2001 01/08/2002 Full text: en | de
57 Slovakia In force 15/10/1990 01/10/1991 Full text: de
58 Slovenia In force 07/03/2001 01/02/2002 Full text: en
59 South Africa Terminated 28/11/1996 01/01/1998 Full text: de
60 Tajikistan Terminated 08/02/1990 01/09/1991 Full text: de | ru
61 Tajikistan In force 15/12/2010 21/12/2012 Full text: en
62 Tunisia In force 01/06/1995 01/01/1997 Full text: de | fr
63 Turkey In force 16/09/1988 01/01/1992 Full text: de
64 Ukraine In force 08/11/1996 01/12/1997 Full text: de
65 United Arab Emirates In force 17/06/2001 01/12/2003 Full text: en | ar
66 Uzbekistan In force 02/06/2000 18/08/2001 Full text: en
67 Viet Nam In force 27/03/1995 01/10/1996 Full text: de
68 Yemen In force 30/05/2003 01/07/2004 Full text: en
69 Zimbabwe Signed (not in force) 10/11/2000