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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 202

Luxembourg

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Albania In force 01/02/1999 18/10/2002 Full text: fr
2 Algeria In force 24/04/1991 17/10/2002 Full text: fr
3 Argentina In force 28/06/1990 20/05/1994 Full text: es
4 Armenia In force 07/06/2001 19/12/2003 Full text: en
5 Azerbaijan In force 18/05/2004 27/05/2009 Full text: en | fr
6 Bahrain Signed (not in force) 11/07/2006 Full text: en
7 Bangladesh In force 22/05/1981 15/09/1987 Full text: en
8 Barbados Signed (not in force) 29/05/2009 Full text: en | fr | nl
9 Belarus Signed (not in force) 09/04/2002 Full text: en | fr
10 Belarus In force 09/02/1989 18/08/1991 Full text: fr | ru
11 Benin In force 18/05/2001 30/08/2007 Full text: fr
12 Bolivia, Plurinational State of Terminated 25/04/1990 10/01/2004 Full text: fr
13 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 03/03/2004 16/09/2010 Full text: en | fr
14 Botswana Signed (not in force) 07/06/2006 Full text: en
15 Brazil Signed (not in force) 06/01/1999 Full text: en
16 Bulgaria In force 25/10/1988 29/05/1991 Full text: fr
17 Burkina Faso In force 18/05/2001 13/01/2004 Full text: fr
18 Burundi In force 13/04/1989 12/09/1993 Full text: fr
19 Cameroon In force 27/03/1980 01/11/1981 Full text: en | fr
20 Chile In force 15/07/1992 05/08/1999 Full text: es
21 China Terminated 04/06/1984 05/10/1986 Full text: en | fr
22 China In force 06/06/2005 01/12/2009 Full text: en | fr
23 Colombia Signed (not in force) 04/02/2009 Full text: en
24 Comoros Signed (not in force) 18/05/2001 Full text: fr
25 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Signed (not in force) 17/02/2005 Full text: fr
26 Costa Rica Signed (not in force) 26/04/2002 Full text: es
27 Côte d'Ivoire In force 01/04/1999 15/06/2013 Full text: fr
28 Croatia In force 31/10/2001 29/12/2003 Full text: en | fr
29 Cuba Signed (not in force) 19/05/1998 Full text: fr | es
30 Cyprus In force 26/02/1991 05/06/1999 Full text: en | fr
31 Czech Republic In force 24/04/1989 13/02/1992 Full text: fr | cs
32 Egypt Terminated 28/02/1977 20/09/1978 Full text: en
33 Egypt In force 28/02/1999 24/05/2002 Full text: fr | ar
34 El Salvador In force 12/10/1999 18/11/2002 Full text: fr
35 Estonia In force 24/01/1996 23/10/1999 Full text: fr
36 Ethiopia Signed (not in force) 01/07/2003
37 Ethiopia Signed (not in force) 26/10/2006 Full text: en | fr
38 Gabon In force 27/05/1998 28/05/2005 Full text: fr
39 Georgia In force 23/06/1993 03/07/1999 Full text: fr
40 Guatemala In force 14/04/2005 01/09/2007 Full text: en | fr | es
41 Hong Kong, China SAR In force 07/10/1996 18/06/2001 Full text: en
42 Hungary In force 14/05/1986 23/09/1988 Full text: fr
43 India In force 31/10/1997 08/01/2001 Full text: fr
44 Kazakhstan In force 16/04/1998 06/02/2001 Full text: en
45 Korea, Republic of Terminated 20/12/1974 03/09/1976 Full text: en
46 Korea, Republic of In force 12/12/2006 27/03/2011 Full text: fr | nl
47 Kuwait In force 28/09/2000 08/12/2003 Full text: fr
48 Latvia In force 27/03/1996 04/04/1999 Full text: fr
49 Lebanon In force 06/09/1999 05/03/2004 Full text: en
50 Liberia Signed (not in force) 05/06/1985
51 Libya In force 15/02/2004 08/12/2007 Full text: en | fr
52 Lithuania In force 15/10/1997 06/09/1999 Full text: fr
53 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of In force 17/02/1999 04/11/2002 Full text: en | fr
54 Madagascar In force 29/09/2005 29/11/2008 Full text: fr
55 Malaysia In force 22/11/1979 08/02/1982 Full text: en
56 Malta In force 05/03/1987 15/06/1993 Full text: en
57 Mauritania Signed (not in force) 23/11/1983
58 Mauritius In force 30/11/2005 16/01/2010 Full text: en | fr
59 Mexico In force 27/08/1998 18/03/2003 Full text: fr
60 Moldova, Republic of In force 21/05/1996 20/04/2002 Full text: fr
61 Mongolia In force 03/03/1992 15/04/2000 Full text: fr | mn
62 Montenegro Signed (not in force) 16/02/2010 Full text: en
63 Morocco Terminated 28/04/1965 18/10/1967 Full text: en | fr
64 Morocco In force 13/04/1999 29/05/2002 Full text: fr
65 Mozambique In force 18/07/2006 01/09/2009 Full text: en
66 Nicaragua Signed (not in force) 27/05/2005 Full text: en | fr | es
67 Oman Signed (not in force) 16/12/2008 Full text: en
68 Pakistan In force 23/04/1998 07/08/2015 Full text: en
69 Panama Signed (not in force) 26/03/2009 Full text: en
70 Paraguay In force 06/10/1992 09/01/2004 Full text: fr
71 Peru In force 12/10/2005 12/09/2008 Full text: fr
72 Philippines In force 14/01/1998 19/12/2003 Full text: en
73 Poland In force 19/05/1987 02/08/1991 Full text: fr | nl
74 Qatar In force 06/11/2007 30/04/2014 Full text: en
75 Romania In force 04/03/1996 09/03/2001 Full text: fr
76 Romania Terminated 08/05/1978 01/05/1980 Full text: nl | en | fr
77 Rwanda In force 02/11/1983 01/08/1985 Full text: en
78 Rwanda Signed (not in force) 16/04/2007 Full text: fr
79 Saudi Arabia In force 22/04/2001 11/06/2004 Full text: en
80 Serbia In force 04/03/2004 12/08/2007 Full text: en | fr
81 Singapore In force 17/11/1978 27/11/1980 Full text: en
82 Slovakia In force 24/04/1989 13/02/1992 Full text: fr | cs
83 Slovenia In force 01/02/1999 14/01/2002 Full text: fr
84 South Africa Terminated 14/08/1998 14/03/2003 Full text: fr
85 Sri Lanka In force 05/04/1982 26/04/1984 Full text: en
86 Sudan Signed (not in force) 07/11/2005 Full text: en | fr
87 Tajikistan Signed (not in force) 12/02/2009 Full text: en
88 Thailand In force 12/06/2002 19/09/2004 Full text: en
89 Togo Signed (not in force) 06/06/2009 Full text: fr
90 Tunisia In force 08/01/1997 18/10/2002 Full text: en
91 Tunisia Terminated 15/07/1964 09/03/1966 Full text: en | fr
92 Turkey In force 27/08/1986 04/05/1990 Full text: fr
93 Uganda Signed (not in force) 01/02/2005 Full text: en
94 Ukraine In force 20/05/1996 27/07/2001 Full text: fr
95 United Arab Emirates In force 05/03/2004 22/11/2007 Full text: en
96 Uruguay In force 04/11/1991 23/04/1999 Full text: fr | es
97 Uzbekistan In force 17/04/1998 06/02/2001 Full text: fr
98 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of In force 17/03/1998 29/04/2004 Full text: fr
99 Viet Nam In force 24/01/1991 11/06/1999 Full text: fr
100 Yemen In force 03/02/2000 31/12/2003 Full text: fr
101 Zambia Signed (not in force) 18/05/2001 Full text: en | fr
102 Iran, Islamic Republic of Signed (not in force) 14/02/2017
103 Kyrgyzstan In force 09/02/1989 18/08/1991 Full text: fr | ru
104 Russian Federation In force 09/02/1989 18/08/1991 Full text: fr | ru
105 Tajikistan In force 09/02/1989 18/08/1991 Full text: fr | ru
106 Turkmenistan In force 09/02/1989 18/08/1991 Full text: fr | ru