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International Investment Agreements Navigator



UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.


International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.

In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.

Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 201

North Macedonia

No. Partners Status Date of
Date of
entry into force
1 Albania In force 04/12/1997 03/04/1998 Full text: en | mk | al
2 Austria In force 28/03/2001 14/04/2002 Full text: en
3 Azerbaijan In force 19/04/2013 12/08/2013
4 Belarus In force 20/06/2001 22/11/2002 Full text: en
5 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 17/02/1999 04/11/2002 Full text: en | fr
6 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 16/02/2001 26/04/2004 Full text: ru | en
7 Bulgaria In force 22/02/1999 05/06/1999
8 China In force 09/06/1997 01/11/1997 Full text: en | zh
9 Croatia In force 06/07/1994 04/11/1995 Full text: en
10 Czech Republic In force 21/06/2001 20/09/2002 Full text: en
11 Denmark In force 08/05/2015 30/06/2016 Full text: en
12 Egypt Signed (not in force) 22/11/1999 Full text: en
13 Finland In force 25/01/2001 22/03/2002 Full text: en
14 France In force 28/01/1998 31/03/2000 Full text: fr
15 Germany In force 10/09/1996 17/09/2000 Full text: de | mk
16 Hungary In force 13/04/2001 14/03/2002 Full text: en
17 India Terminated 17/03/2008 17/11/2008 Full text: en
18 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 12/07/2000 10/07/2013 Full text: en
19 Italy In force 26/02/1997 28/05/1999 Full text: en | it
20 Kazakhstan In force 02/07/2012 21/05/2016 Full text: en
21 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of In force 15/10/1997 30/04/1998 Full text: en
22 Kuwait In force 08/04/2008 02/11/2011
23 Lithuania In force 08/03/2011 13/01/2012 Full text: en
24 Malaysia In force 11/11/1997 17/03/1999 Full text: en
25 Montenegro In force 15/12/2010 30/09/2011 Full text: en | mk | sr
26 Morocco In force 11/05/2010 15/10/2012 Full text: en | ar
27 Netherlands In force 07/07/1998 01/06/1999 Full text: en
28 Poland In force 28/11/1996 22/04/1997 Full text: en
29 Qatar Signed (not in force) 10/2011 Full text: en | ar
30 Romania In force 12/06/2000 13/02/2002 Full text: en | mk | ro
31 Russian Federation In force 21/10/1997 09/07/1998 Full text: ru
32 Serbia In force 04/09/1996 22/07/1997 Full text: en
33 Slovakia In force 25/06/2009 25/08/2011 Full text: en
34 Slovenia In force 05/06/1996 21/09/1999 Full text: mk | sl
35 Spain In force 20/06/2005 30/01/2007 Full text: en | es
36 Sweden In force 07/05/1998 01/10/1998 Full text: en
37 Switzerland In force 26/09/1996 06/05/1997 Full text: en | fr
38 Taiwan Province of China In force 09/06/1999 09/06/1999 Full text: en
39 Turkey In force 14/07/1995 27/10/1997 Full text: en
40 Ukraine In force 02/03/1998 25/03/2000 Full text: en
41 Viet Nam In force 15/10/2014 11/01/2016