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International Investment Agreements Navigator



UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.


International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.

In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.

Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 201


No. Partners Status Date of
Date of
entry into force
1 Barbados In force 28/09/2004 18/06/2005 Full text: en
2 Benin Signed (not in force) 18/05/2001 Full text: fr
3 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 30/11/2005 16/01/2010 Full text: en | fr
4 Botswana Signed (not in force) 17/08/2005
5 Burundi In force 18/05/2001 22/11/2009 Full text: fr
6 Cabo Verde Signed (not in force) 13/04/2017
7 Cameroon Signed (not in force) 03/08/2001 Full text: fr
8 Chad Signed (not in force) 18/05/2001 Full text: fr
9 China In force 04/05/1996 08/06/1997 Full text: en
10 Comoros Signed (not in force) 18/05/2001 Full text: fr
11 Congo In force 20/12/2010 15/12/2013 Full text: fr
12 Côte d'Ivoire Signed (not in force) 20/04/2016
13 Czech Republic In force 05/04/1999 06/05/2000 Full text: en
14 Egypt In force 25/06/2014 17/10/2014 Full text: en
15 Eswatini Signed (not in force) 15/05/2000 Full text: en
16 Finland In force 12/09/2007 17/10/2008 Full text: en
17 France Signed (not in force) 08/03/2010
18 France In force 22/03/1973 01/03/1974 Full text: fr
19 Gabon Signed (not in force) 18/07/2013
20 Gambia Signed (not in force) 10/11/2016
21 Germany In force 25/05/1971 27/08/1973 Full text: en | de
22 Ghana Signed (not in force) 18/05/2001 Full text: en
23 Guinea Signed (not in force) 18/05/2001 Full text: fr
24 India Terminated 04/09/1998 20/06/2000 Full text: en
25 Indonesia In force 05/03/1997 28/03/2000 Full text: en
26 Kenya Signed (not in force) 07/05/2012 Full text: en
27 Korea, Republic of In force 18/06/2007 07/03/2008 Full text: en
28 Kuwait In force 18/04/2013 24/07/2014 Full text: en
29 Madagascar In force 06/04/2004 29/12/2005 Full text: fr
30 Mauritania Signed (not in force) 18/05/2001 Full text: fr
31 Mozambique In force 14/02/1997 26/05/2003 Full text: en
32 Nepal Signed (not in force) 03/08/1999 Full text: en
33 Pakistan In force 03/04/1997 03/04/1997 Full text: en
34 Portugal In force 12/12/1997 03/01/1999 Full text: en
35 Romania In force 20/01/2000 20/12/2000 Full text: en
36 Rwanda Signed (not in force) 30/07/2001 Full text: en
37 Sao Tome and Principe Signed (not in force) 06/05/2016
38 Senegal In force 14/03/2002 14/10/2009 Full text: fr
39 Singapore In force 04/03/2000 19/04/2000 Full text: en
40 South Africa In force 17/02/1998 23/10/1998 Full text: en
41 Sweden In force 23/02/2004 01/06/2005 Full text: en
42 Switzerland In force 26/11/1998 21/04/2000 Full text: en | fr
43 Tanzania, United Republic of In force 04/05/2009 02/03/2013 Full text: en
44 Turkey In force 07/02/2013 30/05/2016
45 United Arab Emirates Signed (not in force) 20/09/2015 Full text: en
46 United Kingdom In force 20/05/1986 13/10/1986 Full text: en
47 Zambia In force 14/07/2015 06/05/2016
48 Zimbabwe Signed (not in force) 17/05/2000 Full text: en