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International Investment Agreements Navigator



UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.


International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.

In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.

Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 201


No. Partners Status Date of
Date of
entry into force
1 Albania In force 05/03/1993 09/08/1993 Full text: en
2 Albania Signed (not in force) 01/11/2006
3 Argentina In force 31/07/1991 01/09/1992 Full text: es
4 Australia In force 07/05/1991 27/03/1992 Full text: en
5 Austria In force 24/11/1988 01/11/1989 Full text: de
6 Azerbaijan In force 26/08/1997 10/02/1999
7 Bangladesh In force 08/07/1997 19/11/1999 Full text: en
8 Belarus In force 24/04/1992 18/01/1993 Full text: ru
9 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 19/05/1987 02/08/1991 Full text: fr | nl
10 Bulgaria In force 11/04/1994 09/03/1995 Full text: en
11 Canada In force 06/04/1990 22/11/1990 Full text: en | fr
12 Chile In force 05/07/1995 17/01/2000 Full text: en | es
13 China In force 07/06/1988 08/01/1989 Full text: en
14 Croatia In force 21/02/1995 04/10/1995 Full text: en
15 Cyprus In force 04/06/1992 06/07/1993 Full text: en
16 Czech Republic In force 16/07/1993 29/06/1994 Full text: cs | pl
17 Denmark Terminated 01/05/1990 13/10/1990 Full text: en
18 Egypt In force 01/07/1995 17/01/1998 Full text: en | ar
19 Estonia In force 06/05/1993 06/08/1993 Full text: en
20 Finland In force 25/11/1996 13/03/1998 Full text: en
21 Finland Terminated 05/04/1990 21/02/1991 Full text: en
22 France In force 14/02/1989 10/02/1990 Full text: fr
23 Germany In force 10/11/1989 24/02/1991 Full text: en
24 Greece In force 14/10/1992 20/02/1995 Full text: en
25 Hungary In force 23/09/1992 16/06/1995 Full text: en
26 India Terminated 07/10/1996 31/12/1997 Full text: en
27 Indonesia In force 06/10/1992 01/07/1993
28 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 02/10/1998 26/10/2001
29 Israel In force 22/05/1991 06/05/1992 Full text: en
30 Italy Terminated 10/05/1989 09/01/1993 Full text: it
31 Jordan In force 04/10/1997 14/08/1999 Full text: en | ar
32 Kazakhstan In force 21/09/1994 25/05/1995 Full text: ru
33 Korea, Republic of In force 01/11/1989 02/02/1990 Full text: en
34 Kuwait In force 05/03/1990 18/12/1993 Full text: en
35 Latvia Terminated 26/04/1993 19/07/1993 Full text: en
36 Lithuania In force 28/09/1992 06/08/1993 Full text: en
37 Malaysia In force 21/04/1993 23/03/1994
38 Moldova, Republic of In force 15/11/1994 27/07/1995
39 Mongolia In force 08/11/1995 26/03/1996 Full text: en | mn | pl
40 Montenegro Terminated 25/10/1979
41 Montenegro In force 03/09/1996 23/01/1997 Full text: en
42 Morocco In force 24/10/1994 09/07/1999 Full text: fr
43 Netherlands In force 07/09/1992 01/02/1994 Full text: en
44 North Macedonia In force 28/11/1996 22/04/1997 Full text: en
45 Norway In force 05/06/1990 24/10/1990 Full text: en
46 Portugal In force 11/03/1993 09/11/1993 Full text: pt
47 Romania In force 23/06/1994 30/12/1994 Full text: en
48 Russian Federation Signed (not in force) 02/10/1992 Full text: ru
49 Serbia In force 03/09/1996 23/01/1997 Full text: en
50 Singapore In force 03/06/1993 29/12/1993 Full text: en
51 Slovakia In force 08/08/1994 14/03/1996 Full text: sk
52 Slovenia In force 28/06/1996 31/03/2000
53 Spain In force 30/07/1992 01/05/1993 Full text: es
54 Sweden In force 13/10/1989 04/01/1990 Full text: en
55 Switzerland In force 08/11/1989 18/04/1990 Full text: fr | en
56 Thailand In force 18/12/1992 10/08/1993 Full text: en
57 Tunisia In force 29/03/1993 22/09/1993 Full text: fr
58 Turkey In force 21/08/1991 19/08/1994 Full text: en
59 Ukraine In force 12/01/1993 14/09/1993
60 United Arab Emirates In force 31/01/1993 09/04/1994 Full text: en
61 United Kingdom In force 08/12/1987 14/04/1988 Full text: en
62 United States of America In force 21/03/1990 06/08/1994 Full text: en
63 Uruguay In force 02/08/1991 21/10/1994 Full text: es
64 Uzbekistan In force 11/01/1995 29/04/1995
65 Viet Nam In force 31/08/1994 24/11/1994 Full text: en