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International Investment Agreements Navigator



UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.


International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.

In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.

Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 201


No. Partners Status Date of
Date of
entry into force
1 Albania In force 25/10/2002 30/04/2004 Full text: en
2 Argentina In force 09/08/1995 06/05/1997 Full text: es
3 Armenia In force 07/10/1994 07/03/1996
4 Austria In force 08/11/1996 01/12/1997 Full text: de
5 Azerbaijan In force 21/03/1997 09/12/1997
6 Belarus In force 14/12/1995 11/06/1997 Full text: ru
7 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 20/05/1996 27/07/2001 Full text: fr
8 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 13/03/2002 22/01/2004 Full text: en
9 Brunei Darussalam In force 18/06/2004 26/04/2006
10 Bulgaria In force 08/12/1994 10/12/1995 Full text: ru
11 Canada In force 24/10/1994 24/07/1995 Full text: en | fr
12 Chile In force 30/10/1995 29/08/1997 Full text: en | es
13 China In force 31/10/1992 29/05/1993
14 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Signed (not in force) 11/10/2000
15 Croatia In force 15/12/1997 05/06/2001 Full text: en
16 Cuba In force 20/05/1995 04/12/1996 Full text: uk
17 Czech Republic In force 17/03/1994 02/11/1995 Full text: en
18 Denmark In force 23/10/1992 29/04/1994 Full text: en
19 Egypt In force 21/12/1992 10/10/1993 Full text: en
20 Equatorial Guinea Signed (not in force) 15/12/2005
21 Estonia In force 15/02/1995 05/07/1995 Full text: en
22 Finland Terminated 14/05/1992 30/01/1994
23 Finland In force 07/10/2004 07/12/2005 Full text: en
24 France In force 03/05/1994 26/01/1996 Full text: fr
25 Gambia Signed (not in force) 14/07/2001 Full text: en
26 Georgia In force 09/01/1995 18/12/1996
27 Germany In force 15/02/1993 29/06/1996 Full text: de
28 Greece In force 01/09/1994 04/01/1997
29 Hungary In force 11/10/1994 03/12/1996 Full text: en
30 India Terminated 01/12/2001 12/08/2003 Full text: en
31 Indonesia In force 11/04/1996 22/06/1997 Full text: en
32 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 21/05/1996 05/07/2003
33 Israel Terminated 16/06/1994 18/02/1997 Full text: en
34 Israel In force 24/11/2010 20/11/2012 Full text: en
35 Italy Terminated 02/05/1995 12/09/1997
36 Japan In force 05/02/2015 26/11/2015 Full text: en
37 Jordan In force 30/11/2005 17/04/2007 Full text: ar
38 Kazakhstan In force 17/09/1994 09/01/1997 Full text: ru
39 Korea, Republic of In force 16/12/1996 03/11/1997 Full text: en
40 Kuwait In force 12/01/2002 11/06/2013
41 Kyrgyzstan Signed (not in force) 23/02/1993 Full text: ru
42 Latvia In force 24/07/1997 30/12/1997
43 Lebanon In force 25/03/1996 26/05/2000 Full text: en
44 Libya In force 23/01/2001 23/04/2003
45 Lithuania In force 08/02/1994 06/03/1995 Full text: en | fr | lt | uk
46 Moldova, Republic of In force 29/08/1995 27/05/1996
47 Mongolia In force 05/11/1992 05/11/1992 Full text: mn | uk
48 Montenegro In force 09/01/2001 03/06/2006
49 Morocco In force 24/12/2001 25/04/2009 Full text: fr
50 Netherlands In force 14/07/1994 01/06/1997 Full text: en
51 North Macedonia In force 02/03/1998 25/03/2000 Full text: en
52 Oman In force 14/01/2002 12/05/2010 Full text: en | ar
53 Panama In force 04/11/2003 13/06/2007 Full text: es
54 Poland In force 12/01/1993 14/09/1993
55 Portugal In force 25/10/2000 18/07/2003 Full text: pt
56 Qatar Signed (not in force) 20/03/2018
57 Romania Signed (not in force) 23/02/1995
58 Russian Federation In force 27/11/1998 27/01/2000 Full text: en | ru
59 San Marino In force 13/01/2006 15/10/2008
60 Saudi Arabia In force 09/04/2008 18/02/2009
61 Serbia In force 09/01/2001 14/08/2001 Full text: sr
62 Singapore In force 18/09/2006 14/07/2007 Full text: en
63 Slovakia Terminated 22/06/1994 03/04/1996 Full text: sk | uk
64 Slovakia In force 26/02/2007 20/02/2009 Full text: en
65 Slovenia In force 30/03/1999 01/06/2000
66 Spain In force 26/02/1998 13/03/2000 Full text: es
67 Sweden In force 15/08/1995 01/03/1997 Full text: en
68 Switzerland In force 20/04/1995 21/01/1997 Full text: en | fr
69 Syrian Arab Republic In force 21/04/2002 16/03/2003
70 Tajikistan In force 06/07/2001 27/05/2003
71 Turkey Terminated 27/11/1996 21/05/1998 Full text: en
72 Turkey In force 09/10/2017 06/09/2018
73 Turkmenistan In force 29/01/1998 28/09/1999
74 United Arab Emirates In force 21/01/2003 28/02/2004 Full text: en
75 United Kingdom In force 10/02/1993 10/02/1993 Full text: en
76 United States of America In force 04/03/1994 16/11/1996 Full text: en
77 Uzbekistan In force 20/02/1993 06/06/1994
78 Viet Nam In force 08/06/1994 08/12/1994
79 Yemen Signed (not in force) 01/02/2001