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International Investment Agreements Navigator



UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.


International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.

In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.

Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 202


No. Partners Status Date of
Date of
entry into force
1 Albania In force 22/05/1993 06/04/1994 Full text: en
2 Algeria In force 29/03/1997 03/05/2000 Full text: fr
3 Argentina In force 11/05/1992 03/12/1993 Full text: es
4 Armenia In force 09/01/1996 01/03/2006 Full text: en | ar
5 Australia In force 03/05/2001 05/09/2002 Full text: en
6 Austria In force 12/04/2001 29/04/2002 Full text: en | de | ar
7 Azerbaijan Signed (not in force) 24/10/2002
8 Bahrain In force 04/10/1997 11/01/1999 Full text: ar
9 Belarus In force 20/03/1997 18/01/1999 Full text: en
10 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) Terminated 28/02/1977 20/09/1978 Full text: en
11 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 28/02/1999 24/05/2002 Full text: fr | ar
12 Bosnia and Herzegovina In force 11/03/1998 29/10/2001 Full text: en
13 Botswana Signed (not in force) 02/07/2003
14 Bulgaria In force 15/03/1998 08/06/2000 Full text: en | ar
15 Burundi Signed (not in force) 13/05/2012
16 Cameroon Signed (not in force) 24/10/2000 Full text: fr
17 Canada In force 13/11/1996 03/11/1997 Full text: en | fr
18 Central African Republic Signed (not in force) 07/02/2000 Full text: fr
19 Chad Signed (not in force) 14/03/1998 Full text: ar
20 Chile Signed (not in force) 05/08/1999 Full text: en
21 China In force 21/04/1994 01/04/1996 Full text: en
22 Comoros In force 13/11/1994 27/02/2000 Full text: ar
23 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Signed (not in force) 18/12/1998 Full text: fr
24 Croatia In force 27/10/1997 02/05/1999 Full text: en
25 Cyprus In force 21/10/1998 11/05/1999 Full text: en
26 Czech Republic In force 29/05/1993 04/06/1994 Full text: en
27 Denmark In force 24/06/1999 29/10/2000 Full text: en | ar
28 Djibouti Signed (not in force) 21/07/1998 Full text: ar
29 Eswatini Signed (not in force) 18/07/2000 Full text: en
30 Ethiopia In force 27/07/2006 27/05/2010 Full text: en
31 Finland In force 03/03/2004 05/02/2005 Full text: en
32 Finland Terminated 05/05/1980 22/01/1982 Full text: en | fr
33 France In force 22/12/1974 01/10/1975 Full text: fr
34 Gabon Signed (not in force) 22/12/1997 Full text: ar
35 Georgia Signed (not in force) 10/08/1999 Full text: en
36 Germany Terminated 05/07/1974 22/07/1978 Full text: en
37 Germany In force 16/06/2005 22/11/2009 Full text: en
38 Ghana Signed (not in force) 11/03/1998 Full text: en
39 Greece In force 16/07/1993 06/04/1995 Full text: en
40 Guinea Signed (not in force) 06/03/1998 Full text: fr
41 Hungary In force 23/05/1995 21/08/1997 Full text: en
42 Iceland In force 08/01/2008 15/06/2009 Full text: ar | en
43 India Terminated 09/04/1997 22/11/2000 Full text: en
44 Indonesia Terminated 19/01/1994 29/11/1994 Full text: en
45 Iran, Islamic Republic of Signed (not in force) 25/05/1977 Full text: ar
46 Italy In force 02/03/1989 01/05/1994 Full text: en | it
47 Jamaica Signed (not in force) 10/02/1999 Full text: en
48 Japan In force 28/01/1977 14/01/1978 Full text: en
49 Jordan In force 08/05/1996 11/04/1998 Full text: en | ar
50 Kazakhstan In force 14/02/1993 08/08/1996 Full text: en
51 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of In force 19/08/1997 12/01/2000 Full text: en
52 Korea, Republic of In force 18/03/1996 25/05/1997 Full text: en
53 Kuwait Terminated 02/05/1966 09/08/1966
54 Kuwait In force 17/04/2001 26/04/2002 Full text: ar
55 Latvia In force 24/04/1997 03/06/1998 Full text: en | ar
56 Lebanon In force 16/03/1996 02/06/1997 Full text: ar
57 Libya In force 03/12/1990 04/07/1991 Full text: ar
58 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Signed (not in force) 22/11/1999 Full text: en
59 Malawi In force 21/10/1997 07/09/1999 Full text: en
60 Malaysia In force 14/04/1997 03/02/2000 Full text: en
61 Mali In force 09/03/1998 07/07/2000 Full text: fr
62 Malta In force 20/02/1999 17/07/2000 Full text: en
63 Mauritius In force 25/06/2014 17/10/2014 Full text: en
64 Mongolia In force 27/04/2004 25/01/2005 Full text: en | ar | mn
65 Morocco Terminated 03/06/1976 07/09/1978
66 Morocco In force 14/05/1997 01/07/1998 Full text: ar
67 Mozambique Signed (not in force) 08/12/1998
68 Netherlands In force 17/01/1996 01/03/1998 Full text: en
69 Netherlands Terminated 30/10/1976 01/01/1978 Full text: en | nl
70 Niger Signed (not in force) 04/03/1998 Full text: ar
71 Nigeria Signed (not in force) 20/06/2000 Full text: en
72 Oman In force 25/03/1998 03/03/2000 Full text: ar
73 Oman Terminated 28/04/1985 Full text: ar
74 Pakistan Signed (not in force) 16/04/2000 Full text: en
75 Poland In force 01/07/1995 17/01/1998 Full text: en | ar
76 Portugal In force 29/04/1999 23/12/2000 Full text: en
77 Qatar In force 12/02/1999 14/07/2006 Full text: ar
78 Romania In force 24/11/1994 03/04/1997 Full text: en | ro
79 Romania Terminated 10/05/1976 02/01/1977 Full text: en
80 Russian Federation In force 23/09/1997 12/06/2000 Full text: en | ru
81 Senegal Signed (not in force) 05/03/1998 Full text: en
82 Serbia Terminated 03/06/1977 20/03/1979
83 Serbia In force 24/05/2005 20/03/2006 Full text: en
84 Seychelles Signed (not in force) 22/01/2002
85 Singapore In force 15/04/1997 20/03/2002 Full text: en
86 Slovakia In force 30/04/1997 01/01/2000 Full text: en
87 Slovenia In force 28/10/1998 07/02/2000 Full text: en
88 Somalia In force 29/05/1982 16/04/1983 Full text: ar
89 South Africa Signed (not in force) 28/10/1998 Full text: en
90 Spain In force 03/11/1992 26/04/1994 Full text: es
91 Sri Lanka In force 11/03/1996 10/03/1998 Full text: en
92 State of Palestine In force 28/04/1998 19/06/1999 Full text: ar
93 Sudan Terminated 28/05/1977 14/03/1978
94 Sudan In force 08/07/2001 01/04/2003
95 Sweden In force 15/07/1978 29/01/1979 Full text: en
96 Switzerland Terminated 25/07/1973 04/06/1974 Full text: fr
97 Switzerland In force 07/06/2010 15/05/2012 Full text: en
98 Syrian Arab Republic In force 28/04/1997 05/10/1998 Full text: en
99 Tanzania, United Republic of Signed (not in force) 30/04/1997
100 Thailand In force 18/02/2000 27/02/2002 Full text: en
101 Tunisia In force 08/12/1989 02/01/1991 Full text: ar
102 Turkey In force 04/10/1996 31/07/2002 Full text: en
103 Turkmenistan In force 23/05/1995 28/02/1996 Full text: en
104 Uganda Signed (not in force) 04/11/1995 Full text: en
105 Ukraine In force 21/12/1992 10/10/1993 Full text: en
106 United Arab Emirates Terminated 19/06/1988 02/03/1998
107 United Arab Emirates In force 11/05/1997 11/01/1999 Full text: ar
108 United Kingdom In force 11/06/1975 24/02/1976 Full text: en
109 United States of America In force 11/03/1986 27/06/1992 Full text: en
110 Uzbekistan In force 16/12/1992 08/02/1994 Full text: en | ar
111 Viet Nam In force 06/09/1997 04/03/2002 Full text: en
112 Yemen Terminated 19/10/1988 03/03/1990
113 Yemen In force 06/06/1996 10/04/1998 Full text: ar
114 Zambia Signed (not in force) 28/04/2000 Full text: en | ar
115 Zimbabwe Signed (not in force) 02/06/1999 Full text: en