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International Investment Agreements Navigator

about
terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 202

Indonesia

Export
No. Partners Status Date of
signature
Date of
entry into force
Text
1 Algeria Signed (not in force) 21/03/2000 Full text: en
2 Argentina Terminated 07/11/1995 01/03/2001 Full text: es
3 Australia In force 17/11/1992 29/07/1993 Full text: en
4 Bangladesh In force 09/02/1998 22/04/1999 Full text: en
5 Belgium Terminated 15/01/1970 17/06/1972 Full text: en
6 Bulgaria Terminated 13/09/2003 23/01/2005 Full text: en
7 Cambodia Terminated 16/03/1999 Full text: en
8 Chile Signed (not in force) 07/04/1999 Full text: en
9 China Terminated 18/11/1994 01/04/1995 Full text: en
10 Croatia Signed (not in force) 10/09/2002 Full text: en
11 Cuba In force 19/09/1997 29/09/1999 Full text: en
12 Czech Republic In force 17/09/1998 21/06/1999 Full text: en
13 Denmark Terminated 30/01/1968 02/07/1968 Full text: en
14 Denmark In force 22/01/2007 15/10/2009 Full text: en
15 Egypt Terminated 19/01/1994 29/11/1994 Full text: en
16 Finland Terminated 13/03/1996 07/06/1997 Full text: en | fi
17 Finland In force 12/09/2006 02/08/2008 Full text: en | fi
18 France Terminated 14/06/1973 29/04/1975 Full text: fr
19 Germany Terminated 08/11/1968 19/04/1971 Full text: en
20 Germany Terminated 14/05/2003 02/06/2007 Full text: en
21 Guyana Signed (not in force) 30/01/2008
22 Hungary Terminated 20/05/1992 13/02/1996 Full text: en
23 India Terminated 10/02/1999 22/01/2004 Full text: en
24 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 22/06/2005 28/03/2009
25 Italy Terminated 25/04/1991 25/06/1995 Full text: it
26 Jamaica Signed (not in force) 10/02/1999 Full text: en
27 Jordan In force 12/11/1996 09/02/1999 Full text: en | ar
28 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of Signed (not in force) 21/02/2000
29 Korea, Republic of In force 16/02/1991 10/03/1994 Full text: en
30 Kyrgyzstan In force 19/07/1995 23/04/1997 Full text: en
31 Lao People's Democratic Republic Terminated 18/10/1994 14/10/1995 Full text: en
32 Libya Signed (not in force) 04/04/2009
33 Malaysia Terminated 22/01/1994 27/10/1999 Full text: en
34 Mauritius In force 05/03/1997 28/03/2000 Full text: en
35 Mongolia In force 04/03/1997 13/04/1999 Full text: en | id | mn
36 Morocco In force 14/03/1997 21/03/2002 Full text: en
37 Mozambique In force 26/03/1999 25/07/2000 Full text: en
38 Netherlands Terminated 07/07/1968 17/07/1971 Full text: en | fr
39 Netherlands Terminated 06/04/1994 01/07/1995 Full text: en
40 Norway Terminated 26/11/1969
41 Norway Terminated 26/11/1991 01/10/1994 Full text: en
42 Pakistan Terminated 08/03/1996 03/12/1996 Full text: en
43 Philippines Signed (not in force) 12/11/2001
44 Poland In force 06/10/1992 01/07/1993
45 Qatar Signed (not in force) 18/04/2000
46 Romania Terminated 27/06/1997 21/08/1999 Full text: en
47 Russian Federation In force 06/09/2007 15/10/2009 Full text: ru
48 Saudi Arabia In force 15/09/2003 05/07/2004
49 Serbia Signed (not in force) 06/09/2011 Full text: sr
50 Singapore Terminated 28/08/1990 28/08/1990
51 Singapore Terminated 16/02/2005 21/06/2006 Full text: en
52 Singapore Signed (not in force) 11/10/2018
53 Slovakia Terminated 12/07/1994 01/03/1995 Full text: en
54 Spain Terminated 30/05/1995 18/12/1996 Full text: en
55 Sri Lanka In force 10/06/1996 21/07/1997 Full text: en
56 Sudan Signed (not in force) 10/02/1998 Full text: en
57 Suriname Signed (not in force) 28/10/1995
58 Sweden In force 17/09/1992 18/02/1993 Full text: en
59 Switzerland Terminated 06/06/1974 09/04/1976 Full text: en
60 Syrian Arab Republic In force 27/06/1997 20/02/2000 Full text: en
61 Tajikistan Signed (not in force) 28/10/2003
62 Thailand In force 17/02/1998 05/11/1998 Full text: en
63 Tunisia In force 13/05/1992 12/09/1992 Full text: en
64 Turkey Terminated 25/02/1997 28/09/1998 Full text: en
65 Turkmenistan Signed (not in force) 02/06/1994
66 Ukraine In force 11/04/1996 22/06/1997 Full text: en
67 United Kingdom In force 27/04/1976 24/03/1977 Full text: en
68 Uzbekistan In force 27/08/1996 27/04/1997 Full text: en
69 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of In force 18/12/2000 23/03/2003
70 Viet Nam Terminated 25/10/1991 03/04/1994 Full text: en
71 Yemen Signed (not in force) 20/02/1998 Full text: en
72 Zimbabwe Signed (not in force) 10/02/1999 Full text: en