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International Investment Agreements Navigator

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terminology

About

UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


Disclaimer:

1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Terminology

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.


In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.


Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 201
No. Name Total BITs * Total TIPs *
1 Afghanistan 4 (3 in force) 5 (4 in force)
2 Albania 44 (38 in force) 7 (7 in force)
3 Algeria 45 (29 in force) 7 (5 in force)
4 Andorra 1 (1 in force) 0
5 Angola 13 (5 in force) 6 (5 in force)
6 Anguilla 0 1 (1 in force)
7 Antigua and Barbuda 3 (2 in force) 9 (9 in force)
8 Argentina 56 (50 in force) 18 (12 in force)
9 Armenia 41 (33 in force) 7 (5 in force)
10 Aruba 0 1 (1 in force)
11 Australia 18 (18 in force) 21 (17 in force)
12 Austria 62 (58 in force) 70 (56 in force)
13 Azerbaijan 49 (37 in force) 4 (3 in force)
14 Bahamas 1 (0 in force) 9 (9 in force)
15 Bahrain 31 (25 in force) 13 (8 in force)
16 Bangladesh 29 (24 in force) 4 (3 in force)
17 Barbados 11 (9 in force) 9 (9 in force)
18 Belarus 62 (50 in force) 8 (7 in force)
19 Belgium 92 (72 in force) 70 (56 in force)
20 Belize 8 (5 in force) 9 (9 in force)
21 Benin 18 (8 in force) 10 (8 in force)
22 Bermuda 0 1 (1 in force)
23 Bhutan 0 2 (2 in force)
24 Bolivia, Plurinational State of 10 (9 in force) 10 (6 in force)
25 Bosnia and Herzegovina 38 (38 in force) 5 (4 in force)
26 Botswana 9 (2 in force) 8 (6 in force)
27 Brazil 22 (1 in force) 19 (13 in force)
28 British Virgin Islands 0 1 (1 in force)
29 Brunei Darussalam 8 (6 in force) 20 (17 in force)
30 Bulgaria 65 (58 in force) 70 (56 in force)
31 Burkina Faso 17 (15 in force) 10 (8 in force)
32 Burundi 10 (6 in force) 9 (8 in force)
33 Cabo Verde 9 (7 in force) 7 (5 in force)
34 Cambodia 26 (14 in force) 15 (13 in force)
35 Cameroon 18 (11 in force) 7 (6 in force)
36 Canada 32 (36 in force) 20 (17 in force)
37 Cayman Islands 0 1 (1 in force)
38 Central African Republic 4 (2 in force) 5 (5 in force)
39 Chad 14 (3 in force) 6 (6 in force)
40 Channel Islands 0 0
41 Chile 50 (37 in force) 33 (26 in force)
42 China 127 (109 in force) 22 (19 in force)
43 Christmas Island 0 0
44 Cocos (Keeling) Islands 0 0
45 Colombia 16 (6 in force) 20 (16 in force)
46 Comoros 7 (3 in force) 9 (7 in force)
47 Congo 15 (8 in force) 5 (5 in force)
48 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 15 (4 in force) 9 (8 in force)
49 Cook Islands 0 3 (2 in force)
50 Costa Rica 22 (15 in force) 17 (15 in force)
51 Côte d'Ivoire 14 (7 in force) 11 (8 in force)
52 Croatia 55 (48 in force) 70 (56 in force)
53 Cuba 58 (40 in force) 3 (3 in force)
54 Curaçao 0 1 (1 in force)
55 Cyprus 26 (25 in force) 70 (56 in force)
56 Czech Republic 79 (76 in force) 70 (56 in force)
57 Denmark 50 (46 in force) 70 (56 in force)
58 Djibouti 8 (3 in force) 8 (7 in force)
59 Dominica 2 (2 in force) 9 (9 in force)
60 Dominican Republic 14 (11 in force) 5 (5 in force)
61 Ecuador 5 (3 in force) 10 (7 in force)
62 Egypt 100 (72 in force) 13 (11 in force)
63 El Salvador 21 (18 in force) 10 (8 in force)
64 Equatorial Guinea 10 (4 in force) 5 (5 in force)
65 Eritrea 4 (1 in force) 5 (4 in force)
66 Estonia 28 (27 in force) 71 (57 in force)
67 Eswatini 6 (2 in force) 11 (8 in force)
68 Ethiopia 31 (21 in force) 5 (4 in force)
69 Faeroe Islands 0 0
70 Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 0 1 (1 in force)
71 Fiji 0 3 (3 in force)
72 Finland 72 (67 in force) 70 (56 in force)
73 France 101 (94 in force) 70 (56 in force)
74 French Guiana 0 0
75 French Polynesia 0 1 (1 in force)
76 Gabon 15 (8 in force) 7 (7 in force)
77 Gambia 16 (5 in force) 8 (6 in force)
78 Georgia 32 (30 in force) 6 (5 in force)
79 Germany 131 (128 in force) 70 (56 in force)
80 Ghana 27 (9 in force) 8 (6 in force)
81 Gibraltar 0 0
82 Greece 45 (41 in force) 70 (56 in force)
83 Greenland 0 1 (1 in force)
84 Grenada 2 (2 in force) 9 (9 in force)
85 Guadeloupe 0 0
86 Guam 0 0
87 Guatemala 20 (18 in force) 11 (9 in force)
88 Guinea 24 (8 in force) 8 (6 in force)
89 Guinea-Bissau 2 (1 in force) 9 (7 in force)
90 Guyana 9 (5 in force) 10 (10 in force)
91 Haiti 8 (3 in force) 9 (9 in force)
92 Holy See 0 0
93 Honduras 11 (9 in force) 12 (10 in force)
94 Hong Kong, China SAR 19 (18 in force) 6 (5 in force)
95 Hungary 57 (54 in force) 70 (56 in force)
96 Iceland 9 (8 in force) 34 (29 in force)
97 India 23 (20 in force) 13 (9 in force)
98 Indonesia 42 (25 in force) 19 (14 in force)
99 Iran, Islamic Republic of 68 (58 in force) 2 (1 in force)
100 Iraq 6 (2 in force) 5 (3 in force)
101 Ireland 0 70 (56 in force)
102 Isle of Man 0 0
103 Israel 38 (35 in force) 5 (4 in force)
104 Italy 72 (60 in force) 69 (55 in force)
105 Jamaica 17 (11 in force) 9 (9 in force)
106 Japan 32 (28 in force) 20 (19 in force)
107 Jordan 56 (48 in force) 9 (9 in force)
108 Kazakhstan 47 (42 in force) 11 (10 in force)
109 Kenya 18 (10 in force) 7 (6 in force)
110 Kiribati 0 3 (2 in force)
111 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of 24 (14 in force) 0
112 Korea, Republic of 93 (89 in force) 20 (17 in force)
113 Kuwait 83 (66 in force) 12 (6 in force)
114 Kyrgyzstan 33 (23 in force) 9 (8 in force)
115 Lao People's Democratic Republic 23 (20 in force) 16 (13 in force)
116 Latvia 41 (43 in force) 70 (56 in force)
117 Lebanon 50 (42 in force) 7 (5 in force)
118 Lesotho 3 (3 in force) 8 (6 in force)
119 Liberia 4 (3 in force) 8 (6 in force)
120 Libya 37 (25 in force) 10 (7 in force)
121 Liechtenstein 0 1 (1 in force)
122 Lithuania 55 (53 in force) 70 (56 in force)
123 Luxembourg 94 (72 in force) 70 (56 in force)
124 Macao, China SAR 2 (2 in force) 3 (2 in force)
125 Madagascar 9 (8 in force) 5 (3 in force)
126 Malawi 7 (3 in force) 7 (6 in force)
127 Malaysia 66 (54 in force) 25 (21 in force)
128 Maldives 1 (0 in force) 3 (3 in force)
129 Mali 22 (8 in force) 9 (7 in force)
130 Malta 22 (20 in force) 71 (57 in force)
131 Marshall Islands 1 (0 in force) 2 (1 in force)
132 Martinique 0 0
133 Mauritania 22 (10 in force) 6 (5 in force)
134 Mauritius 46 (27 in force) 9 (7 in force)
135 Mayotte 0 1 (1 in force)
136 Mexico 32 (29 in force) 17 (15 in force)
137 Micronesia, Federated States of 0 2 (1 in force)
138 Moldova, Republic of 42 (38 in force) 4 (4 in force)
139 Monaco 0 0
140 Mongolia 42 (36 in force) 4 (4 in force)
141 Montenegro 26 (24 in force) 6 (6 in force)
142 Montserrat 0 9 (9 in force)
143 Morocco 69 (50 in force) 8 (7 in force)
144 Mozambique 27 (20 in force) 8 (6 in force)
145 Myanmar 9 (7 in force) 15 (12 in force)
146 Namibia 15 (9 in force) 7 (6 in force)
147 Nauru 0 3 (2 in force)
148 Nepal 5 (4 in force) 3 (3 in force)
149 Netherlands 93 (90 in force) 70 (56 in force)
150 New Caledonia 0 1 (1 in force)
151 New Zealand 4 (2 in force) 16 (14 in force)
152 Nicaragua 17 (13 in force) 10 (8 in force)
153 Niger 5 (2 in force) 10 (8 in force)
154 Nigeria 29 (15 in force) 9 (7 in force)
155 Niue 0 3 (2 in force)
156 Norfolk Island 0 0
157 North Macedonia 40 (38 in force) 5 (5 in force)
158 Northern Mariana Islands 0 0
159 Norway 15 (14 in force) 32 (28 in force)
160 Oman 34 (28 in force) 12 (7 in force)
161 Pakistan 46 (32 in force) 7 (6 in force)
162 Palau 0 2 (1 in force)
163 Panama 24 (20 in force) 12 (10 in force)
164 Papua New Guinea 6 (5 in force) 3 (3 in force)
165 Paraguay 25 (22 in force) 17 (12 in force)
166 Peru 29 (29 in force) 30 (22 in force)
167 Philippines 37 (32 in force) 16 (13 in force)
168 Pitcairn 0 0
169 Poland 56 (57 in force) 70 (56 in force)
170 Portugal 54 (44 in force) 70 (56 in force)
171 Puerto Rico 0 0
172 Qatar 56 (22 in force) 12 (6 in force)
173 Réunion 0 0
174 Romania 79 (77 in force) 70 (56 in force)
175 Russian Federation 79 (63 in force) 6 (6 in force)
176 Rwanda 10 (4 in force) 11 (10 in force)
177 Saint Helena 0 1 (1 in force)
178 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1 (0 in force) 9 (9 in force)
179 Saint Lucia 2 (2 in force) 9 (9 in force)
180 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0 1 (1 in force)
181 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2 (2 in force) 9 (9 in force)
182 Samoa 0 3 (2 in force)
183 San Marino 10 (5 in force) 0
184 Sao Tome and Principe 2 (0 in force) 3 (3 in force)
185 Saudi Arabia 24 (20 in force) 13 (8 in force)
186 Senegal 28 (18 in force) 10 (8 in force)
187 Serbia 52 (48 in force) 4 (4 in force)
188 Seychelles 4 (2 in force) 8 (6 in force)
189 Sierra Leone 3 (2 in force) 8 (6 in force)
190 Singapore 33 (37 in force) 34 (30 in force)
191 Slovakia 54 (54 in force) 70 (56 in force)
192 Slovenia 36 (35 in force) 70 (56 in force)
193 Solomon Islands 0 3 (2 in force)
194 Somalia 3 (2 in force) 4 (4 in force)
195 South Africa 40 (13 in force) 10 (8 in force)
196 South Sudan 1 (0 in force) 1 (1 in force)
197 Spain 79 (72 in force) 70 (56 in force)
198 Sri Lanka 26 (24 in force) 6 (5 in force)
199 State of Palestine 5 (2 in force) 6 (6 in force)
200 Sudan 29 (14 in force) 8 (7 in force)
201 Suriname 4 (1 in force) 10 (10 in force)
202 Sweden 67 (64 in force) 70 (56 in force)
203 Switzerland 113 (112 in force) 37 (33 in force)
204 Syrian Arab Republic 40 (34 in force) 4 (4 in force)
205 Taiwan Province of China 23 (16 in force) 6 (6 in force)
206 Tajikistan 35 (23 in force) 7 (6 in force)
207 Tanzania, United Republic of 19 (11 in force) 6 (6 in force)
208 Thailand 39 (36 in force) 23 (20 in force)
209 Timor-Leste 3 (1 in force) 1 (1 in force)
210 Togo 4 (3 in force) 10 (8 in force)
211 Tokelau 0 0
212 Tonga 1 (1 in force) 3 (2 in force)
213 Trinidad and Tobago 12 (12 in force) 9 (9 in force)
214 Tunisia 55 (39 in force) 8 (7 in force)
215 Turkey 109 (77 in force) 21 (17 in force)
216 Turkmenistan 27 (19 in force) 7 (5 in force)
217 Turks and Caicos Islands 0 1 (1 in force)
218 Tuvalu 0 3 (2 in force)
219 Uganda 15 (6 in force) 8 (7 in force)
220 Ukraine 73 (66 in force) 6 (5 in force)
221 United Arab Emirates 83 (45 in force) 12 (6 in force)
222 United Kingdom 103 (93 in force) 70 (56 in force)
223 United States of America 45 (39 in force) 69 (50 in force)
224 United States Virgin Islands 0 0
225 Uruguay 31 (30 in force) 19 (14 in force)
226 Uzbekistan 49 (45 in force) 5 (4 in force)
227 Vanuatu 2 (0 in force) 2 (1 in force)
228 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of 27 (25 in force) 5 (5 in force)
229 Viet Nam 61 (49 in force) 23 (18 in force)
230 Wallis and Futuna Islands 0 1 (1 in force)
231 Yemen 36 (22 in force) 5 (5 in force)
232 Yugoslavia (former) 1 (1 in force) 0
233 Zambia 14 (6 in force) 7 (6 in force)
234 Zimbabwe 32 (10 in force) 8 (6 in force)

* Stated number of BITs/TIPs does not include treaties that have been denounced, terminated by mutual consent or renegotiated.